(too old to reply)
Dog neuter
Human_And_Animal_Behaviour_Forensic_Sciences_Research_Laboratory
2008-09-06 21:53:48 UTC
HOWEDY cshenk you pathetic miserable stinkin rotten
lyin dog kat an child abusin animal murderin life-long
incurable malignant maliciHOWES mental case,
Hi! My dog is at the vet being neutered.
You sez your veterinary malpracticioner reads my forums??

ASK your veterinary malpracticioner to DEFEND HISSELF~!
I know they will have lots of advice for us when we pick
him up but if any of you have anything to add (especially
the stuff they often leave out), I'd appreciate it!
Oh, you mean LIKE THIS STUFF??:

Subject: The Long-term Heath Impacts of S/N in Dogs

Session I: Non-reproductive Effects of Spaying and Neutering
Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Non-Surgical
Contraceptive Methods for Pet Population Control . www.acc-d.org

The effects of castration on behavior, particularly aggressive behavior,
were clearly questioned, indicating a need for further studies.

Dr. Verstegen-Onclin presented preliminary data concerning the
possible relation between early spaying and abnormal external
genital development leading to chronic vestibule-vaginal infection
and UTI. Since early-age spaying is a relatively recent approach to
population control in carnivores, long-term data are unavailable and
recent data are now slowly accumulating, allowing detection of side
effects not observed or not taken into consideration in the previously
published studies. Even if preliminary, these observations present new
questions and deserve further investigation.

Dr. Reichler summarized the results accumulated over 10 years in
her laboratory showing the relation between spaying and urinary
incontinence, a common side effect with poorly understood pathogeny
in the spayed dog. Directly or indirectly, through GnRH and the
gonadotrophins, acting at the periphery or centrally, the reproductive
axis seems to be involved in the regulation of continence.

Dr. Spain, who has been recently involved in many studies assessing
the long-term risks and benefits of early-age neutering, presented
convincing data about the effects of spay/neuter on hip dysplasia,
cranial cruciate ligament rupture, long bone development, body
weight, diabetes, urinary tract infections, mammary cancer, and
several other conditions.

Looking for alternatives, we have been too often caught up by insisting
on an ideal drug or technique that would be without side effects, bias or
pitfalls. In reality, there is not likely to be one "magic treatment" that
can instantly, inexpensively and permanently sterilize a male or female
cat or dog with no risk of undesired effects.

At this stage, spay/neuter still remains the only acceptable standard to
control population in dogs and cats, but this "gold standard" is probably
not as efficacious, safe or devoid of side effects as generally considered.

The presence of unwanted side effects or problems related to surgical
spay/neuter allows us to compare the value of this reference and to
consider the development of new alternatives with more realism.

Unlike what you will find in Spay/Neuter Fact Sheets, the health
impacts of spay/neuter that are discussed in this paper are all backed
up with citations to the veterinary medical literature. You can find
the paper here:
http://escregistry.kattare.com/healthEffectsOfSpayNeuterInDogs.pdf
http://www.neutering.org

Material that includes research data from 2006, 2005 was
presented at ACC&D's Third International Symposium, and
part of the slideshows presentedare available here:
http://www.acc-d.org/2006%20Symposium%20Docs/Session%20I.pdf
Issues regarding previous assumptions on what neutering
does as a 'benefit' are pretty well challenged in this data above.

Alliance for Contraception in Cats and Dogs (ACC&D) is a
nonprofit 501C(3) group involved in attempting to study, define
and resolve some of the problems that currently exist internationally
as they regard issues of animal population control.

"More than 120 representatives from universities, animal welfare
organizations, foundations, companies, and government agencies
from 11 countries gathered to share information and plan for the
future". Main site: http://www.acc-d.org/

"On the negative side, neutering male dogs if done before maturity,
increases the risk of osteosarcoma (bone cancer) by a factor of 3.8;
this is a common ancer in medium/large and larger breeds with a
poor prognosis.

increases the risk of cardiac hemangiosarcoma by a factor of 1.6;
this is a common cancer and major cause of death in some breeds

triples the risk of hypothyroidism

increases the risk of geriatric cognitive impairment

triples the risk of obesity, a common health problem in dogs with
it the many associated health problems associated with obesity

· quadruples the small risk (<0.6%) of prostate cancer

· doubles the small risk (<1%) of urinary tract cancers

· increases the risk of orthopedic disorders

· increases the risk of adverse reactions to vaccinations

Hemangiosarcoma is a common cancer in dogs. It is a major
cause of death in some breeds, such as Salukis, French Bulldogs,
Irish Water Spaniels, Flat Coated Retrievers, Golden Retrievers,
Boxers, Afghan Hounds, English Setter, Scottish Terrier, Boston
Terrier, Bulldogs, and German Shepherd Dogs24.

In an aged-matched case controlled study, spayed females were
found to have a 2.2 times higher risk of splenic hemangiosarcoma
compared to intact females24.

A retrospective study of cardiac hemangiosarcoma risk factors
found a >5 times greater risk in spayed female dogs compared
to intact female dogs and a 1.6 times higher risk in neutered male
dogs compared to intact male dogs.25

The authors suggest a protective effect of sex hormones against
hemangiosarcoma, especially in females.

In breeds where hermangiosarcoma is an important cause of
death, the increased risk associated with spay/neuter is likely
one that should factor into decisions on whether or when to
sterilize a dog.

Hypothyroidism

Spay/neuter in dogs was found to be correlated with a three fold
increased risk of hypothyroidism compared to intact dogs. The
researchers suggest a cause-and-effect relationship26.

They wrote: "More important [than the mild direct impact on thyroid
function] in the association between [spaying and] neutering and
hypothyroidism may be the effect of sex hormones on the immune
system.

Castration increases the severity of autoimmune thyroiditis in mice"
which may explain the link between spay/neuter and hypothyroidism
in dogs.

"Dr. Spain, who has been recently involved in many studies assessing
the long-term risks and benefits of early-age neutering, presented
convincing data about the effects of spay/neuter on hip dysplasia,
cranial cruciate ligament rupture, long bone development, body
weight, diabetes, urinary tract infections, mammary cancer, and
several other conditions."

CONCLUSIONS

An objective reading of the veterinary medical literature reveals
a complex situation with respect to the longterm health impacts
of spay/neuter in dogs.

The evidence shows that spay/neuter correlates with both positive
AND adverse health effects in dogs. It also suggests how much we
really do not yet understand about this subject.

On balance, it appears that no compelling case can be made for
neutering most male dogs to prevent future health problems,
especially immature male dogs. The number of health problems
associated with neutering may exceed the associated health
benefits in most cases.

----------------------------

Session I: Non-reproductive Effects of Spaying and Neutering
Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Non-Surgical
Contraceptive Methods for Pet Population Control . www.acc-d.org
1
SESSION OVERVIEW
Dr. John Verstegen
Session presenters were Dr. John Verstegen, Dr. Deborah Duffy, Dr. Karine
Verstegen-
Onclin, Dr. Iris Reichler and Dr. Vic Spain (see separate documents for
individual
presenters' materials).
Although the total number of dogs and cats humanely killed annually in the
United States
has decreased significantly over the last 20 years, the numbers are still in
the millions.
Accurate national shelter data does not exist, but estimates suggest that
between 5 and 11
million (possibly even more) dogs and cats are handled annually by
approximately 5,000
shelters. Around 50% are euthanized, 15% are reclaimed by their owners, and
the rest are
adopted.
Spay and neuter is widely accepted as the solution to pet overpopulation and
population
control. In veterinary colleges with shelter medicine specialties,
spay/neuter is presented
as the contraceptive technique of choice. In many veterinary colleges, this
is often the
only contraceptive approach taught to veterinary students.
Surgical sterilization indeed has some clear advantages: It is irreversible,
is relatively
easy to perform, is well introduced across the country, and is generally
accepted.
However, the technique also has some limitations: Surgical sterilization can
be
expensive; there are risks of surgery and anesthesia; there can be side
effects and pain;
the procedure requires an infrastructure and specialized knowledge; and it
is not
appropriate in all situations. Further, although spay/neuter has been widely
used for more
than 20 years, the generally marvelous reproductive efficiency of cats and
dogs has been
such that the homeless pet problem remains an acute societal, individual and
ethical
problem.
The ideal contraceptive approach (as stated by Brown and Moskovitz years
ago, and
taken from Berelson in 1964) should be long-acting or irreversible, highly
effective, and
safe; it should produce few or no side effects; it should require limited or
no need for
significant action to be applied; and it should necessitate no continuing
supplies and be
low cost.
The objectives of the first session were to look closely at surgical
sterilization in this
context. Does spay/neuter meet these requirements noted above? It is
important to
understand the "gold standard" in order to have a benchmark against which
non-surgical
approaches can be compared.
Dr. Duffy presented results from a large epidemiological study that called
into question
generally held beliefs about the effects of spaying on dogs' behavior. The
results of that
study suggested that spayed female dogs of some breeds tend to be more
aggressive
Session I: Non-reproductive Effects of Spaying and Neutering
Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Non-Surgical
Contraceptive Methods for Pet Population Control . www.acc-d.org
2
toward humans than intact females. The effects of castration on behavior,
particularly
aggressive behavior, were clearly questioned, indicating a need for further
studies.
Dr. Verstegen-Onclin presented preliminary data concerning the possible
relation
between early spaying and abnormal external genital development leading to
chronic
vestibule-vaginal infection and UTI. Since early-age spaying is a relatively
recent
approach to population control in carnivores, long-term data are unavailable
and recent
data are now slowly accumulating, allowing detection of side effects not
observed or not
taken into consideration in the previously published studies. Even if
preliminary, these
observations present new questions and deserve further investigation.
Dr. Reichler summarized the results accumulated over 10 years in her
laboratory
showing the relation between spaying and urinary incontinence, a common side
effect
with poorly understood pathogeny in the spayed dog. Directly or indirectly,
through
GnRH and the gonadotrophins, acting at the periphery or centrally, the
reproductive axis
seems to be involved in the regulation of continence.
Dr. Spain, who has been recently involved in many studies assessing the
long-term risks
and benefits of early-age neutering, presented convincing data about the
effects of
spay/neuter on hip dysplasia, cranial cruciate ligament rupture, long bone
development,
body weight, diabetes, urinary tract infections, mammary cancer, and several
other
conditions. Like the preliminary study of Dr Verstegen-Onclin, Dr. Spain
advises
delaying sterilization of females until after four months of age.
The main interest of this session was to take an objective and careful look
at the nonreproductive
effects of spay/neuter. Looking for alternatives, we have been too often
caught up by insisting on an ideal drug or technique that would be without
side effects,
bias or pitfalls. In reality, there is not likely to be one "magic
treatment" that can
instantly, inexpensively and permanently sterilize a male or female cat or
dog with no
risk of undesired effects.
At this stage, spay/neuter still remains the only acceptable standard to
control population
in dogs and cats, but this "gold standard" is probably not as efficacious,
safe or devoid of
side effects as generally considered. The presence of unwanted side effects
or problems
related to surgical spay/neuter allows us to compare the value of this
reference and to
consider the development of new alternatives with more realism.
Session I: Non-reproductive Effects of Spaying and Neutering
Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Non-Surgical
Contraceptive Methods for Pet Population Control . www.acc-d.org
1
PRESENTATION SUMMARY & POWERPOINT
Non-reproductive Effects of Spaying and Neutering
on Behavior in Dogs
Deborah L. Duffy, Ph.D., and James A. Serpell, Ph.D., Center for the
Interaction of
Animals and Society, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of
Pennsylvania
Although there are scattered reports in the literature of apparently adverse
effects of
spaying and neutering on canine behavior, there are very few quantitative
studies and
most of these have employed behavioral measures of unknown reliability and
validity.
The present study used the Canine Behavioral Assessment and Research
Questionnaire
(C-BARQ)© to investigate the impact of spaying/neutering in various dog
populations,
including (1) a random sample of 1,552 dogs belonging to 11 common breeds
and (2) a
convenience sample of over 6,000 dogs of various breeds recruited via an
online survey.
The C-BARQ is a reliable, standardized method for evaluating and screening
dogs for the
presence and severity of behavioral problems. It was developed by behavioral
researchers
at the University of Pennsylvania (Hsu and Serpell, 2003) and consists of a
101-item
questionnaire that is simple to use, takes about 15 minutes to fill out, and
can be
completed by anyone who is reasonably familiar with the dog's typical
responses to
ordinary, day-to-day events and stimuli. The C-BARQ is currently the only
existing
behavioral assessment instrument of its kind to be thoroughly tested for
reliability and
validity on large samples of dogs of various breeds. This process has
resulted in the
identification of the following 13 distinct behavioral factors or traits
that are common to
the majority of dogs, regardless of breed, age, sex or neuter status:
1. Stranger-directed aggression: Dog shows threatening or aggressive
responses to
strangers approaching or invading the dog's or the owner's personal space,
territory, or home range.
2. Owner-directed aggression: Dog shows threatening or aggressive responses
to
the owner or other members of the household when challenged, manhandled,
stared at, stepped over, or when approached while in possession of food or
objects.
3. Dog-directed fear/aggression: Dog shows fearful and/or aggressive
responses
when approached directly by unfamiliar dogs.
4. Familiar dog aggression: Threatening or aggressive responses during
competition for resources with other (familiar) dog(s) in the household.
5. Stranger-directed fear: Fearful or wary responses when approached
directly by
strangers.
Session I: Non-reproductive Effects of Spaying and Neutering
Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Non-Surgical
Contraceptive Methods for Pet Population Control . www.acc-d.org
2
6. Nonsocial fear: Fearful or wary responses to sudden or loud noises,
traffic, and
unfamiliar objects and situations.
7. Separation-related behavior: Vocalizes and/or engages in destructive
behavior
when separated from the owner, often accompanied or preceded by behavioral
and autonomic signs of anxiety, including restlessness, loss of appetite,
trembling,
and excessive salivation.
8. Attachment and attention-seeking: Maintains close proximity to the owner
or
other members of the household, solicits affection or attention, and becomes
agitated when the owner gives attention to third parties.
9. Trainability: Shows willingness to attend to the owner, obeys simple
commands,
fetches objects, responds positively to correction, and ignores distracting
stimuli.
10. Chasing: Pursues cats, birds, and other small animals, given the
opportunity.
11. Excitability: Strong reaction to potentially exciting or arousing
events, such as
going for walks or car trips, doorbells, arrival of visitors, and the owner
arriving
home; difficulty settling down after such events.
12. Touch sensitivity: Fearful or wary responses to potentially painful
procedures,
including bathing, grooming, claw-clipping, and veterinary examinations.
13. Energy level: Highly energetic, boisterous, and/or playful behavior.
The results of the study suggest that spayed female dogs tend to be more
aggressive
toward their owners and to strangers than intact females, but that these
effects of spaying
on behavior appear to be highly breed-specific. Contrary to popular belief,
the study
found little evidence that castration was an effective treatment for
aggressive behavior in
male dogs, and may exacerbate other behavioral problems. Further research
will be
needed to clarify the relationship between age of spaying/neutering and
these apparent
effects on behavior.
Reference
Hsu, Y., and Serpell, J.A. 2003. "Development and validation of a
questionnaire for
measuring behavior and temperament traits in pet dogs." J. Amer. Vet. Med.
Assoc., 223:
1293-1300.
Session I: Non-reproductive Effects of Spaying and Neutering
Effects on Behavior
By Dr. Deborah Duffy
Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Non-Surgical
Contraceptive Methods for Pet Population Control . www.acc-d.org 1
BEHAVIIORAL EFFECTS OF SPAYIING/NEUTERIING
IIN DOMESTIIC DOGS
Deborah L. Duffy, Ph.D.
James A. Serpell, Ph.D.
Center for the Interaction of Animals &
Society
School of Veterinary Medicine
University of Pennsylvania
"Spaying and neutering makes
pets better, more affectionate
companions."
OFTEN CITED BEHAVIORAL REASONS TO SPAY/NEUTER A PET:
"Female dogs, like males, have
an increased risk of aggression if
left intact."
"It is true that unneutered dogs are often more aggressive and
territorial (urine marking, fighting), but these traits should not be
confused with loyalty and protection of their home and family."
"..any (behavioral) change would be for the better.
Altered pets are less aggressive toward other dogs and
cats, are less likely to urine mark and wander, and
generally have better personalities."
"Unsterilized animals often exhibit
more behavior and temperament
problems than do those who have
been spayed or neutered."
"The only behavior changes that
are observed after neutering
relate to behaviors influenced by
male hormones."
(from websites of veterinary clinics, humane societies, trainers & animal
shelters)
Session I: Non-reproductive Effects of Spaying and Neutering
Effects on Behavior
By Dr. Deborah Duffy
Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Non-Surgical
Contraceptive Methods for Pet Population Control . www.acc-d.org 2
QUESTIIONS::
What effects does spaying/neutering have on nonreproductive
behaviors?
Sex differences?
Breed differences?
Canine Behavioral Assessment &
Research Questionnaire
(C-BARQ)
http://www.vet.upenn.edu/cbarq/
Session I: Non-reproductive Effects of Spaying and Neutering
Effects on Behavior
By Dr. Deborah Duffy
Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Non-Surgical
Contraceptive Methods for Pet Population Control . www.acc-d.org 3
101 Questions:
5-point scale
mixture of severity scales and frequency scales
Stranger-directed aggression (10 items)
Owner-directed aggression (8 items)
Dog-directed fear/aggression (8 items)
Dog rivalry (4 items)
Stranger-directed fear (4 items)
Nonsocial fear (6 items)
Separation-related behavior (8 items)
Attachment/attention-seeking (6 items)
The C-BARQ Factors or Traits
Trainability (8 items)
Chasing (4 items)
Excitability (6 items)
Touch sensitivity (4 items)
Energy (2 items)
Session I: Non-reproductive Effects of Spaying and Neutering
Effects on Behavior
By Dr. Deborah Duffy
Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Non-Surgical
Contraceptive Methods for Pet Population Control . www.acc-d.org 4
Item 78: Escaping/roaming
Item 79: Rolling in scent
Item 80: Coprophagia (eating feces)
Item 81: Chewing objects
Item 82: Mounting
Item 83: Food begging
Item 84: Food stealing
Item 85: Fear of stairs
Item 86: Pulling on leash
Item 87: Marking with urine
Item 88: Submissive/emotional
urination
Miiscellllaneous C-BARQ IItems
Item 89: Separation urination
Item 90: Separation defecation
Item 91: Hyperactivity
Item 94: Staring (obsessive)
Item 95: Snapping at flies (obsessive)
Item 96: Tail-chasing
Item 97: Shadow/light-chasing
Item 98: Barking
Item 99: Autogrooming (self)
Item 100: Allogrooming (others)
Item 101: Other abnormal/stereotypic
Random Sample Survey
Respondents:
1,552 dog owners (breed club members)
Dogs
Age: ! 1 year old (mean 6 years, Std.dev. 3.2 yrs)
Sex: Male:Female ratio = 1:1
40% Spayed/Neutered
Session I: Non-reproductive Effects of Spaying and Neutering
Effects on Behavior
By Dr. Deborah Duffy
Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Non-Surgical
Contraceptive Methods for Pet Population Control . www.acc-d.org 5
Basset Hounds
n = 152
Dachshunds
n = 122
English
Springer
Spaniels
n = 254
West Highland
White Terriers
n = 93
Yorkshire Terriers
n = 93
Golden
Retrievers
n = 179
Labrador
Retrievers
n = 281
Poodles
n = 71
Rottweilers
n = 94
Shetland
Sheepdogs
n = 117
Siberian
Huskies
n = 96
Reasons fforr Spayiing/Neuterriing::
Percent
Birth Control 41.8
Required by Shelter/Breeder 2.2
Control/Prevent Behavior Problems 18.1
Control/Prevent Health Problems 31.4
Recommended by Veterinarian .5
Other 6.0
Session I: Non-reproductive Effects of Spaying and Neutering
Effects on Behavior
By Dr. Deborah Duffy
Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Non-Surgical
Contraceptive Methods for Pet Population Control . www.acc-d.org 6
SPAYED FEMALES ARE MORE AGGRESSIIVE
TOWARD PEOPLE
**
** p < 0.025
*
* p = 0.06
Mann-Whitney U test
SPAYED FEMALES ARE MORE FEARFUL
AND SENSIITIIVE TO TOUCH
* p < 0.05 ** p < 0.025
* **
Mann-Whitney U test
Session I: Non-reproductive Effects of Spaying and Neutering
Effects on Behavior
By Dr. Deborah Duffy
Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Non-Surgical
Contraceptive Methods for Pet Population Control . www.acc-d.org 7
NEUTERED MALES MARK THEIIR
"TERRIITORIIES" LESS OFTEN
n = 502 n = 80
*
* p < 0.005
Mann-Whitney U test
INTACT
SPAYED/NEUTERED
SPAYED/NEUTERED DOGS BEG FOR FOOD
AND LIICK PEOPLE/OBJECTS MORE OFTEN
n=398 n=188 n=502 n=79 n=406 n=189 n=520 n=80
** p < 0.001
*
*
* p < 0.004
**
**
Mann-Whitney U test
Session I: Non-reproductive Effects of Spaying and Neutering
Effects on Behavior
By Dr. Deborah Duffy
Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Non-Surgical
Contraceptive Methods for Pet Population Control . www.acc-d.org 8
BREED-SPECIIFIIC EFFECTS OF SPAYIING/NEUTERIING
DOG-DIIRECTED AGGRESSIION/FEAR
INTACT
SPAYED/NEUTERED
***
*** p < 0.005 (dog-directed aggression/fear)
* p < 0.05 (dog-directed fear)
* **
** p < 0.05 (dog-directed aggression)
Convenience Sample Survey
Respondents:
3,593 dog owners (open-access to C-BARQ
website)
Only 1 dog per owner
Dogs:
Age: 6 months - 23 years (mean 4.8 years,
Std.dev. 3.2 yrs)
Sex: Male:Female ratio = 1:1
76% Spayed/Neutered
17 breeds (plus mixed breeds) with sample size
of > 50 dogs each
Reasons for spaying/neutering:
Birth control (40%)
Required by breeder/shelter (30%)
Session I: Non-reproductive Effects of Spaying and Neutering
Effects on Behavior
By Dr. Deborah Duffy
Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Non-Surgical
Contraceptive Methods for Pet Population Control . www.acc-d.org 9
INTACT
SPAYED/NEUTERED
** p < 0.0001
* p < 0.0005
** ** * **
n=247 n=672 n=276 n=542 n=283 n=766 n=353 n=638
SPAYED/NEUTERED DOGS ARE MORE AGGRESSIIVE
TOWARD PEOPLE AND OTHER DOGS
Bonferroni corrected p value: 0.0016
Mann-Whitney U test
INTACT
SPAYED/NEUTERED
* p < 0.0001
n=277 n=716 n=351 n=597 n=267 n=709 n=328 n=603
SPAYED/NEUTERED DOGS ARE MORE FEARFUL AND
SENSIITIIVE TO HANDLIING
* * * *
Mann-Whitney U test
Session I: Non-reproductive Effects of Spaying and Neutering
Effects on Behavior
By Dr. Deborah Duffy
Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Non-Surgical
Contraceptive Methods for Pet Population Control . www.acc-d.org 10
INTACT
SPAYED/NEUTERED
*
* p < 0.001
Mean (+/- 95% confidence intervals)
n=297 n=818 n=374 n=696
SPAYED DOGS ARE LESS ENERGETIIC
Mann-Whitney U test
INTACT
SPAYED/NEUTERED
* p < 0.0005
*
*
*
SPAYED/NEUTERED DOGS ROLL IIN & EAT
FECES MORE OFTEN
n=282 n=794 n=351 n=662 n=294 n=803 n=366 n=680
Mann-Whitney U test
Session I: Non-reproductive Effects of Spaying and Neutering
Effects on Behavior
By Dr. Deborah Duffy
Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Non-Surgical
Contraceptive Methods for Pet Population Control . www.acc-d.org 11
INTACT
SPAYED/NEUTERED
* p < 0.0001
*
*
n=294 n=817 n=368 n=693 n=294 n=814 n=364 n=691
NEUTERED DOGS BEG & STEAL FOOD
MORE OFTEN
Mann-Whitney U test
INTACT
SPAYED/NEUTERED
** p < 0.0001
**
**
Mean (+/- 95% confidence intervals)
*
n=298 n=818 n=373 n=695
* p < 0.001
n=298 n=817 n=372 n=696
SPAYED/NEUTERED DOGS SELF-GROOM
& BARK EXCESSIIVELY
Mann-Whitney U test
Session I: Non-reproductive Effects of Spaying and Neutering
Effects on Behavior
By Dr. Deborah Duffy
Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Non-Surgical
Contraceptive Methods for Pet Population Control . www.acc-d.org 12
INTACT
SPAYED/NEUTERED * p < 0.002
* *
ns ns
TOUCH SENSIITIIVIITY
BREED-SPECIIFIIC EFFECTS OF SPAYIING/NEUTERIING
FEMALE MALE FEMALE MALE FEMALE MALE
n=23 n=51 n=37n=28 n=39 n=31 n=40 n=24 n=21 n=85 n=26 n=55
Mann-Whitney U test
* p < 0.025
** p < 0.01
* **
SEX-SPECIIFIIC EFFECTS OF
SPAYIING/NEUTERIING
INTACT
SPAYED/NEUTERED
n=22 n=28 n=28 n=13
Mann-Whitney U test
Session I: Non-reproductive Effects of Spaying and Neutering
Effects on Behavior
By Dr. Deborah Duffy
Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Non-Surgical
Contraceptive Methods for Pet Population Control . www.acc-d.org 13
SUMMARY
For most behaviors, spaying/neutering was
associated with worse behavior, contrary to
conventional wisdom.
A few behaviors (e.g., energy level, urine marking)
were reduced in spayed/neutered dogs.
The effects of spaying/neutering are often specific
to certain breeds and are not always equivalent
between sexes.
CONCLUSIIONS
Significant differences in scores do not necessarily
indicate severe behavioral problems.
Neutering male dogs does not render them useless for
protection or guarding.
We need to investigate mechanisms for behavioral
effects of spaying and develop alternatives.
Dog owners need to receive accurate information to
help them form realistic expectations.
Session I: Non-reproductive Effects of Spaying and Neutering
Effects on Behavior
By Dr. Deborah Duffy
Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Non-Surgical
Contraceptive Methods for Pet Population Control . www.acc-d.org 14
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Dr. Yuying Hsu (Nat. Taiwan Normal University).
Kathy Kruger (Univ. of Pennsylvania).
The Arell Foundation, The Kenneth A. Scott Charitable
Trust, The Pet Care Trust, The University of Pennsylvania
Research Foundation, AKC Canine Health Foundation,
and the Arthur L. "Bud" Johnson Foundation.
Various breed clubs.
All participants.
Session I: Non-reproductive Effects of Spaying and Neutering
Effects on the Urogenital System
By Dr. Karine Verstegen-Onclin
Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Non-Surgical
Contraceptive Methods for Pet Population Control . www.acc-d.org 1
Surgical neutering and
the external reproductive
system in the dog
Karine Verstegen-Onclin, DVM, PhD, DECAR
John Verstegen, DVM, PhD, MSc, DECAR
University of Florida, Gainesville
Embryology of the female
reproductive tract development
! Fusion of the
paramesonephric (Mullerian)
ducts to form uterine body,
cervix and vagina
! Development of the urogenital
sinus into the vestibule,
urethra and urinary bladder
Session I: Non-reproductive Effects of Spaying and Neutering
Effects on the Urogenital System
By Dr. Karine Verstegen-Onclin
Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Non-Surgical
Contraceptive Methods for Pet Population Control . www.acc-d.org 2
Embryology of the female
reproductive tract development
! The hymen separates the vagina
(mullerian ducts) and vestibule
(urogenital sinus)
! Epithelium (ecto and endo-) and
some mesoderm of both original
structures
! Hymen has disappeared at the time
of birth
! Estrogens and testosterone influence
Stages of the female
reproductive tract development
o Development from around days
28-32 and a reproductive system
ready at birth
o Growth and maturation from birth to
puberty
o Final growth and differentiation
obtained after puberty
o Degenerescence and fibrosis with
age
Session I: Non-reproductive Effects of Spaying and Neutering
Effects on the Urogenital System
By Dr. Karine Verstegen-Onclin
Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Non-Surgical
Contraceptive Methods for Pet Population Control . www.acc-d.org 3
Endocrine control of the female
reproductive tract development
! Embryogenesis from around days 28-32
Gonadal ridges
WT-1
SF-1
DAX-1
Bipotent gonads
SRY
Testis
S cells Leydig cells
MIS
Testosterone
Male phenotype
Regression
Of Mullerian ducts
Ovaries
Granulosa Cells
Thecal cells
Estradiol/P4
Female Phenotype
Testosterone
SF-1
SF-1
SF-1
SF-1
Chromosomal Sex
Gonadal Sex
Phenotype Sex
Endocrine control of the female
reproductive tract development
! Embryogenesis from around days 28-32
! Growth and maturation from birth
through puberty
" Dependent on FSH, LH, estradiol,
IGF, androgens
! Final growth obtained after puberty
Session I: Non-reproductive Effects of Spaying and Neutering
Effects on the Urogenital System
By Dr. Karine Verstegen-Onclin
Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Non-Surgical
Contraceptive Methods for Pet Population Control . www.acc-d.org 4
Endocrine control of the female
reproductive tract development
! The ovaries secrete small amounts of
androgens and androgen precursors, and,
additionally, estrogens stimulate external
genitalia growth.
! From birth through puberty, these ovarian
secretions induce the changes in mammary
glands development, body fat deposition,
vaginal and uterine tissues growth and
secretions.
Endocrine control of the female
reproductive tract development
# Spaying, depending on age at
completion, removes the endocrine
support needed for full reproductive
development and development of the
external genitalia.
Session I: Non-reproductive Effects of Spaying and Neutering
Effects on the Urogenital System
By Dr. Karine Verstegen-Onclin
Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Non-Surgical
Contraceptive Methods for Pet Population Control . www.acc-d.org 5
Endocrine control of the female
reproductive tract development
# Questions related to early spaying:
#Does this affect external genitalia
development?
#Is this responsible for pathological
processes in dogs?
#Does age at spaying influence the
appearance of those pathological
processes, if any?
Since in Florida (only 2 years!) we have been impressed by the
large number of dogs presented to our SA Reproduction Service
at the VMC for recessed vulva and external genitalia problems.
These observations are really uncommon in Europe, where early
spay is exceptional.
Does early spaying influence
external genitalia problems?
.Any influence on
- development of vaginitis,
- perivulvar dermatitis,
- urinary tract problems?
Session I: Non-reproductive Effects of Spaying and Neutering
Effects on the Urogenital System
By Dr. Karine Verstegen-Onclin
Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Non-Surgical
Contraceptive Methods for Pet Population Control . www.acc-d.org 6
Recessed vulva, vaginal
dermatitis, vaginitis and UTI
" 27 dogs were seen by the Small Animal Reproduction
Clinic at the VMC of the University of Florida
within 18 months (October 2004 through April 2006)
with a history of
. Recurrent UTI (74%), with some cases lasting for
more than 10 years!!
. Vaginitis (100%)
. Newly diagnosed = 66%
. Recurrent = 27%
. Peri-vulvar dermatitis (40%)
" Age at time of presentation ranged from 0.7 to 12.8
years (mean 3.2 years)
Recessed vulva, vaginal
dermatitis, vaginitis and UTI
" Recessed-hypoplastic vulva = 85%
" Redundant skin fold = 40%
Session I: Non-reproductive Effects of Spaying and Neutering
Effects on the Urogenital System
By Dr. Karine Verstegen-Onclin
Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Non-Surgical
Contraceptive Methods for Pet Population Control . www.acc-d.org 7
Recessed vulva, vaginal
dermatitis, vaginitis and UTI
Recessed vulva, vaginal
dermatitis, vaginitis and UTI
Session I: Non-reproductive Effects of Spaying and Neutering
Effects on the Urogenital System
By Dr. Karine Verstegen-Onclin
Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Non-Surgical
Contraceptive Methods for Pet Population Control . www.acc-d.org 8
Recessed vulva, vaginal
dermatitis, vaginitis and UTI
! All dogs, but 2, were spayed dogs
! 21 had been spayed before puberty
Mean age at spaying 4.7 +/- 3 months n=18
. 15 were spayed around 2 to 4 months
Mean age at spaying 11.8 +/- 3 weeks n=12
(+ 3 unknown)
. 6 were spayed around puberty
Mean age at spaying 7.5 +/- 0.8 months
! 4 had been spayed after puberty
Mean age at spaying 2.4 +/- 0.86 years
Recessed vulva, vaginal dermatitis,
vaginitis and UTI
25 (100%Total 21 (84%) 4 (16%) )
After 4 6 (24%) 4 (16%) 10 (40%)
months
Before 4 15 (60%) 0 (0%) 15 (60%)
months
After Total
Puberty
Before
Puberty
Fisher's Exact Test
The two-sided P value is 0.0166,
considered significant.
The row/column association is
statistically significant.
Session I: Non-reproductive Effects of Spaying and Neutering
Effects on the Urogenital System
By Dr. Karine Verstegen-Onclin
Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Non-Surgical
Contraceptive Methods for Pet Population Control . www.acc-d.org 9
Recessed vulva, vaginal
dermatitis, vaginitis and UTI
! All dogs have been treated at least
once and sometimes for several
years with AB without significant
success.
! Dogs were surgically treated with
definite resolution of the clinical
signs, with the exception of one
case.
! One major dehiscence was
observed.
Discussion
" Preliminary results
" Higher incidence in spayed animals than in
intact dogs
" Higher incidence in animals spayed early
than in animals spayed later
" More common in U.S., where early spaying
is actually more common than in Europe,
where mean age at sterilization is around
puberty (when most of the growth is
achieved)
Session I: Non-reproductive Effects of Spaying and Neutering
Effects on the Urogenital System
By Dr. Karine Verstegen-Onclin
Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Non-Surgical
Contraceptive Methods for Pet Population Control . www.acc-d.org 10
Discussion
" Older textbooks indicate that spaying
performed in dogs prior to completion of
puberty decreases the release of estrogen,
preventing normal development of
secondary sex characteristics
" One of the results of this process may be
recessed, juvenile vulva
" Furthermore, BW gain being a common
feature in neutered animals, redundant skin
folds may be present in conjunction with
recessed vulva
Discussion
" Our preliminary results seem to confirm those
observations
" Contradictory opinions exist in the literature
on the effect of early spaying and the
reproductive tract of the female dog (e.g.,
Salmeri et al., 1999; Lightner et al., 2001)
! Not long-term
! Limited number of animals
! Intended to demonstrate the safety of early
versus late spaying
! Anterior to 2000 when early spaying was not
as common as today
Session I: Non-reproductive Effects of Spaying and Neutering
Effects on the Urogenital System
By Dr. Karine Verstegen-Onclin
Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Non-Surgical
Contraceptive Methods for Pet Population Control . www.acc-d.org 11
Discussion
" Recessed vulva and redundant skin folds are
associated with
! Retention of fluids
! Urine leaking
! Irritation by hair
! Continuously moist area
! Bacterial growth
! Perivulvar vaginitis
! Vaginitis
! UTI
" Surgery is an effective method to correct the
trouble
Conclusions
" All early spayed animals shown with some
of the previous clinical signs should always
first be checked for hypoplastic/recessed
vulva
" Hormonal insufficiency (including estrogens
and IGF) is probably involved in the
determinism of the disease
" For this reason, as well as for all the other
related problems, early spaying should be
considered with caution when not absolutely
needed
Session I: Non-reproductive Effects of Spaying and Neutering
Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Non-Surgical
Contraceptive Methods for Pet Population Control . www.acc-d.org
1
PRESENTATION SUMMARY & POWERPOINT
Incontinence in Spayed Bitches: Frequency, Causes & Therapy
Iris Reichler, Madeleine Hubler and Susi Arnold, Vetsuisse-Faculty,
University of
Zurich, Switzerland
Urinary incontinence (UI) is the involuntary loss of urine. UI rarely occurs
in sexually
intact bitches (0-1%)1, whereas in spayed bitches the incidence is up to
20%2. The
underlying pathophysiological mechanism is a reduced closure pressure of the
urethra
after spaying3.
The causal relationship between the removal of the ovaries and UI has been
clearly
demonstrated4. However, it is still unclear what mechanism triggers UI after
spaying. An
oestrogen deficiency was initially considered to be the underlying cause5.
This hypothesis
is however contradicted by several observations. For example, bitches
treated with depot
preparations of gestagens, to suppress oestrus, do not have an increased
risk of UI, even
though the treatment results in ovarian atrophy6 and the oestrogen remains
in a basal
level7.
Another side effect of spaying is the increase in plasma gonadotropins, due
to the lack of
the ovarian negative feedback8. About 42 weeks after ovarectomy the
gonadotropin levels
reach a plateau, when the plasma FSH is 17 times and the plasma LH is 8
times the initial
concentration9. One could therefore ask if it is the elevated plasma level
of FSH and LH
that are responsible for the increased risk of UI in spayed bitches. If this
were correct,
then affected bitches could be successfully treated with depot preparations
of GnRHanalogues,
through down-regulation of GnRH-receptors in the pituitary and this in turn
will decrease the plasma gonadotropin concentrations. Indeed, 7 of 13
bitches affected by
UI were successfully treated with an injection of depot preparations of
GnRH-analogues
and remained continent for an average of 247 days10. However, it is
questionable whether
the success of this treatment is due to a decrease in gonadotropins since
their blood levels
in responders and non-responders are not different11. It is possible that
GnRH has a direct
effect on the lower urinary tract, but the success of the therapy is not
based on a
normalisation of the urethral sphincter incompetence after spaying11. Recent
studies in
beagle bitches have given rise to the assumption that GnRH modulates the
function of the
bladder12.
The treatment of incontinent bitches with GnRH-analogues is mainly
interesting for the
clarification of the pathophysiological mechanism. For patients affected by
UI, the
therapy of first choice is with alpha-adrenergica (Phenylpropanolamine /
Ephedrine).
This results in an increased urethral closure pressure and continence in
more than 90% of
cases.
If the therapeutic effect is insufficient, then alpha-adrenergica may be
combined with
oestrogen or Flavoxatum. In refractory cases, several surgical methods are
described of
Session I: Non-reproductive Effects of Spaying and Neutering
Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Non-Surgical
Contraceptive Methods for Pet Population Control . www.acc-d.org
2
which colposuspension13, urethropexy14 and the endoscopic injection of
collagen15 are
most common and have a success rate of 50 - 75%.
References
1. Thrusfield, Holt and Muirhead (1998) J Small Anim Pract 39:559-566.
2. Arnold et al. (1989) Schweiz Arch Tierheilk 131:259-263.
3. Rosin and Barsanti (1981) JAVMA 178:814-822.
4. Thrusfield (1985) Vet Rec 116:695.
5. Finco, Osborne and Lewis (1974) Vet Clin North Am 4:501-516.
6. El Etreby (1979) Cell Tissue Res 200:229-243.
7. De Bosschere et al. (2002) Theriogenology 58:1209-1217.
8. Olson, Mulnix and Nett (1992) Am J Vet Res 53:762-766.
9. Reichler et al. (2004) Theriogenology 62:1391-1402.
10. Reichler et al. (2003) Theriogenology 60:1207-1216.
11. Reichler et al., Theriogenology, in press (2006).
12. Reichler et al., Theriogenology, in press (2006).
13. Holt, J Small Anim Pract 26:237-246, 1985.
14. White, J Small Anim Pract, 42: 481-486, 2001.
15. Arnold et el. (1996) Small Anim Pract 37:163-168.
Session I: Non-reproductive Effects of Spaying and Neutering
Incontinence: Frequency, Causes and Therapy
By Dr. Iris Reichler
Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Non-Surgical
Contraceptive Methods for Pet Population Control . www.acc-d.org 1
Urinary Incontinence (UI)
in spayed bitches:
frequency, causes, therapy
Iris Reichler, Madeleine Hubler, Susi Arnold
Vetsuisse Faculty, University Zurich, Switzerland
UI in adult spayed bitches
. Neurogenic . Non-neurogenic
- USMI
- Ureterovaginal fistula
- Urovagina
- Ectopic ureter
- Tumor
- Cystitis
Session I: Non-reproductive Effects of Spaying and Neutering
Incontinence: Frequency, Causes and Therapy
By Dr. Iris Reichler
Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Non-Surgical
Contraceptive Methods for Pet Population Control . www.acc-d.org 2
. Non-neurogenic
- USMI
- Ureterovaginal fistula
- Urovagina
- Ectopic ureter
- Tumor
- Cystitis
UI in adult spayed bitches
. Neurogenic
Spaying - UI
. Interval between spaying and UI
- Immediately: 10 years
- Mean 2.9 years post-op
- 75 % of the cases within 3 years
Richter 1985, Holt 1985, Arnold 1989
Session I: Non-reproductive Effects of Spaying and Neutering
Incontinence: Frequency, Causes and Therapy
By Dr. Iris Reichler
Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Non-Surgical
Contraceptive Methods for Pet Population Control . www.acc-d.org 3
Spaying - UI
. Interval:
- Immediately: 10 years
. Incidence:
- Spayed bitches 3% - 21%
- Intact bitches 0.2 - 2.1%
Joshua 1965
BSAVA 1975
Krawiec 1989
Ruckstuhl 1978
Osborne 1980
Okkens 1981
Arthur 1981
Thrusfield 1985
Arbeiter 1986
Arnold 1989
Holt 1993
Blendinger 1995
Kyles 1996
Angioletti 2004
Reichler 2005
Goethelm 2006
Spaying - UI
. Interval:
- Immediately: 10 years
. Incidence:
- Spayed bitches 3% - 21%
- Risk factors
. Body weight, breed
. Time of spaying
Ruckstuhl 1978, Arbeiter 1986, Arnold 1989, Holt 1993, Blendinger
1995, Nickel 1998, Thrusfield 1998, Stöcklin-Gautschi 2001,
Angioletti 2004, Reichler 2005, Goethelm 2006
Session I: Non-reproductive Effects of Spaying and Neutering
Incontinence: Frequency, Causes and Therapy
By Dr. Iris Reichler
Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Non-Surgical
Contraceptive Methods for Pet Population Control . www.acc-d.org 4
Risk factors in spayed bitches
0
20
40
60
80
100
<10 >10-20 >20-30 >30-40 >40
Body weight
incontinence %
Arnold 1989
Risk factors in spayed bitches
0
20
40
60
80
100
Boxer DSH
Reichler 2005
incontinence %
. Body weight
. Breed
. Boxer
. Doberman
. Rottweiler
. Giant Schnauzer
. Old English Sheepdog
Session I: Non-reproductive Effects of Spaying and Neutering
Incontinence: Frequency, Causes and Therapy
By Dr. Iris Reichler
Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Non-Surgical
Contraceptive Methods for Pet Population Control . www.acc-d.org 5
Prepubertal spay: risk 50%
0
20
40
60
80
100
<10 >10-20 >20-30 >30-40 >40
before first heat after first heat
incontinence %
Arnold 1989, Stöcklin 2002
Urethral closure pressure
Continent 18 cm H2O
Incontinent 4 cm H2O
________________________
Critical limit 7.5 cm H2O
Arnold 1997
Session I: Non-reproductive Effects of Spaying and Neutering
Incontinence: Frequency, Causes and Therapy
By Dr. Iris Reichler
Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Non-Surgical
Contraceptive Methods for Pet Population Control . www.acc-d.org 6
Urethral pressure profile
Intact, continent
Spayed,
incontinent
MUCP= 3cm H
2
O
MUCP= 35cm H
2
O
Factors contributing to
urethral closure
. Neuromuscular components 60%
- Somatic 0%
- Sympathetic 50%
- Parasympathetic 10%
. Non-neuromuscular components 40%
- Venous plexus 20%
- Connective tissue 20%
Awad 1976, Bump 1988, Downie 1976, Rud 1980, Raz 1972
Session I: Non-reproductive Effects of Spaying and Neutering
Incontinence: Frequency, Causes and Therapy
By Dr. Iris Reichler
Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Non-Surgical
Contraceptive Methods for Pet Population Control . www.acc-d.org 7
Therapy USMI
. !-adrenergic substances
- Phenylpropanolamine
1,5mg/kg bid, tid PO)
- Ephedrine
(1-2mg/kg bid PO)
!Continence: 85-98%
Arnold 1989, Blendinger 1995, Scott 2002, Burgherr 2006
Therapy USMI
. !-adrenergic substances
. Oestrogens:
- Increased responsiveness to alpha-agonists
- Cell growth and proliferation
- Increase of bladder threshold
- Continence: 60-65%
- Estriol 1mg /dog /day
Schreiter 1976
Session I: Non-reproductive Effects of Spaying and Neutering
Incontinence: Frequency, Causes and Therapy
By Dr. Iris Reichler
Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Non-Surgical
Contraceptive Methods for Pet Population Control . www.acc-d.org 8
Therapy USMI
. !-adrenergic substances
. Oestrogens:
- Increased responsiveness to alpha-agonists
- Cell growth and proliferation
- Increase of bladder threshold
- Continence: 60-65%
- Estriol 1mg /dog /day
Hodgson 1978, Larsson 1984,Versi 1988, arnold 1997, Janszen 1997,
Nickel 1998, Blakemann 2001, Mandigers 2001
Nickel 1997
11%
13%
23% 53%
USMI
combined form
detrusor instability
normal UPP
Forms of UI in spayed bitches
Session I: Non-reproductive Effects of Spaying and Neutering
Incontinence: Frequency, Causes and Therapy
By Dr. Iris Reichler
Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Non-Surgical
Contraceptive Methods for Pet Population Control . www.acc-d.org 9
Combined Therapy
!-adrenergic substances
&
drugs for detrusor instability
- Anticholinergic agent (propantheline)
- Antispasmodic medications (oxybutynine,
tolteridine, flavoxate, diphenpyraline)
- Tricyclic antidepressants (imipramine, doxepine)
- Beta agonist (terbutaline)
Combined Therapy
Phenylpropanolamine 1.5mg/kg bid-tid
&
Flavoxate 10mg/kg bid
&
Session I: Non-reproductive Effects of Spaying and Neutering
Incontinence: Frequency, Causes and Therapy
By Dr. Iris Reichler
Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Non-Surgical
Contraceptive Methods for Pet Population Control . www.acc-d.org 10
Effect of treatment
. Urethral closure!
. Relaxation of the bladder
. Compensation of the "oestrogen deficit"
Removal of the ovaries !
endocrine consequences?
Session I: Non-reproductive Effects of Spaying and Neutering
Incontinence: Frequency, Causes and Therapy
By Dr. Iris Reichler
Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Non-Surgical
Contraceptive Methods for Pet Population Control . www.acc-d.org 11
GnRH
Feedback
Hypothalamus
Pituitary
gland
Estrogens
-
-
Changes in gonadotropins
following spaying
Reichler 2004
0
5
10
15
20
-2 1 4 7 10 13 16 19 22 25 28 31 34 37 40 43 46 49
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
-2 1 4 7 10 13 16 19 22 25 28 31 34 37 40 43 46 49 52
weeks post spaying
FSH [ng/mL]
!"
!"
52
weeks post spaying
LH [ng/mL]
Session I: Non-reproductive Effects of Spaying and Neutering
Incontinence: Frequency, Causes and Therapy
By Dr. Iris Reichler
Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Non-Surgical
Contraceptive Methods for Pet Population Control . www.acc-d.org 12
Disturbed Feedback
GnRH
FSH, LH
Hypothalamus
Pituitary
gland
? Urinary incontinence ?
FSH-, LH- and GnRHreceptors
in the urinary tract
SM
EP
Welle 2006
Session I: Non-reproductive Effects of Spaying and Neutering
Incontinence: Frequency, Causes and Therapy
By Dr. Iris Reichler
Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Non-Surgical
Contraceptive Methods for Pet Population Control . www.acc-d.org 13
GnRH treatment
35 incontinent bitches
. 18 continent
. 13 improved
. 4 unchanged
Reichler 2006
Spayed
incontinent
After GnRH-treatment,
continent
UPUPP after GnRH treatment:
Session I: Non-reproductive Effects of Spaying and Neutering
Incontinence: Frequency, Causes and Therapy
By Dr. Iris Reichler
Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Non-Surgical
Contraceptive Methods for Pet Population Control . www.acc-d.org 14
Cystometry
before treatment
post GnRHtreatment
Endoscopic injection of collagen
Session I: Non-reproductive Effects of Spaying and Neutering
Incontinence: Frequency, Causes and Therapy
By Dr. Iris Reichler
Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Non-Surgical
Contraceptive Methods for Pet Population Control . www.acc-d.org 15
Urethra
Vagina
Submucosal injection of
collagen
Session I: Non-reproductive Effects of Spaying and Neutering
Incontinence: Frequency, Causes and Therapy
By Dr. Iris Reichler
Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Non-Surgical
Contraceptive Methods for Pet Population Control . www.acc-d.org 16
End of procedure
0
20
40
60
80
% 100
6 months after
treatment
Final success
Continent Improved Incontinent
Long-term success of
collagen injection
Barth 2002
Session I: Non-reproductive Effects of Spaying and Neutering
Incontinence: Frequency, Causes and Therapy
By Dr. Iris Reichler
Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Non-Surgical
Contraceptive Methods for Pet Population Control . www.acc-d.org 17
Thanks to Susi Arnold
Madeleine Hubler
Adrian Fairburn
Andrea Barth
Lisa Hung
Esther Pfeiffer
Monika Welle
Christine Eckrich
Tuulia Burgherr
Wolfgang Jöchle
Claude Piché
PR Pharmaceuticals
Tim Trigg
Peptech
Vetsuisse Grant
Grant Univ. of Zurich
ESVD Grant
Session I: Non-reproductive Effects of Spaying and Neutering
Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Non-Surgical
Contraceptive Methods for Pet Population Control . www.acc-d.org
1
PRESENTATION SUMMARY & POWERPOINT
Risks and Benefits of Neutering and Early-Age Neutering in
Dogs and Cats: Effects on Development, Obesity, and Select
Orthopedic and Neoplastic Conditions
C. Victor Spain, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Neutering of dogs and cats confers a mix of benefits and adverse risks. The
objective of
this presentation is to highlight recent research findings on the
associations between
neutering (whether early-age or at a traditional age) and select medical
conditions. In this
abstract, the term neutering is used in the broadest sense to include both
castration of
male dogs and cats or ovariohysterectomy (or ovariectomy) of female dogs and
cats. The
data on early-age neutering is from a retrospective cohort study of 1,579
cats and 1,659
dogs adopted from a large animal shelter between 1989 and 1998 (Spain,
2004).
Obesity. Several studies have indicated an increased prevalence of obesity
in neutered
dogs and cats. Energy consumption appears to decrease after neutering in
dogs and cats,
although the degree and timing varied between studies. Some researchers
attribute
neutering-related obesity in cats to increased food consumption and not to
altered
metabolic rate, suggesting that the weight gain can be prevented with a
lower fat diet
(German, 2006, Nguyen, 2004, Kanchuck, 2002). Obesity does not appear to be
affected
by age of neutering in cats, but among dogs, early-age neutering is
associated with a
lower incidence of obesity than neutering after 6 months of age (Spain,
2004).
Canine Hip Dysplasia (CHD) and Cranial Cruciate Ligament (CCL) Injury. One
study found an increased incidence of CHD after neutering in boxers (van
Hagen, 2005),
and among dogs seen in an orthopedic surgical clinic, the prevalence of CCL
injury
among neutered dogs (4.7%) was more than twice that of intact dogs (2.3%)
(Slauterbeck, 2004). These findings regarding CCL injury incidence are
consistent with
findings that the level of sex hormones affects the incidence of anterior
cruciate ligament
(ACL) rupture in humans. Hip dysplasia is increased among early-neutered
dogs
compared to those neutered after 6 months of age (Spain, 2004).
Mammary Cancer and Prostatic Cancer. Spaying before 1 year of age reduces
the risk
of mammary carcinoma approximately 90% in cats, and spaying before second
estrus in
dogs similarly reduces the risk by about 90% (Overley, 2005). The incidence
of
mammary cancers does not vary between ovariohysterectomy (traditional spay
with
removal of the uterus and ovaries) and ovarioectomy (removal of just the
ovaries) (van
Goethem, 2006). Traditional thought is that neutering reduces the risk of
prostatic cancer
among male dogs. Recent research suggests that after neutering, however,
changes in
endothelin, a cell protein involved in cell growth, may eventually reverse
the benefits of
neutering on prostatic cancer risk (Padley, 2002) and the incidence of
prostatic cancer
may actually be higher in castrated dogs than intact dogs (Teske, 2002).
Session I: Non-reproductive Effects of Spaying and Neutering
Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Non-Surgical
Contraceptive Methods for Pet Population Control . www.acc-d.org
2
Select References
Early-age neutering
CV Spain, JM Scarlett, KA Houpt, 2004. Long-term risks and benefits of
pediatric
gonadectomy in cats. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association.
224(3):
372-379.
CV Spain, JM Scarlett, KA Houpt, 2004. Long-term risks and benefits of
pediatric
gonadectomy in dogs. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
. 224(3):
380-387.
CV Spain, JM Scarlett, SM Cully, 2002. When to neuter dogs and cats: a
survey of New
York state veterinarians' practices and beliefs. Journal of the American
Animal Hospital
Association, 38(4): 482-488.
Physical development and obesity
M Hoenig, DC Ferguson, 2002. Effects of neutering on hormonal concentrations
and
energy requirements in male and female cats. American Journal of Veterinary
Research.
63(5): 634-639.
AJ German. 2006. The growing problem of obesity in dogs and cats. Journal of
Nutrition.
136: 1940S-1946S.
PG Nguyen, HJ Dumon, BS Siliart, et al. 2004. Effects of dietary fat and
energy on body
weight and composition after gonadectomy in cats. American Journal of
Veterinary
Research. 65(12):1708-1713.
ML Kanchuck, RC Backus, CC Calvert, et al., 2002. Neutering induces changes
in food
intake, body weight, plasma insulin and leptin concentrations in normal and
lipoprotein
lipase-deficient male cats. Journal of Nutrition. 132:1730S-1732S.
PD McGreevy, PC Thompson, C Pride, et al., 2005. Prevalence of obesity in
dogs
examined by Australian veterinary practices and the risk factors involved.
The Veterinary
Record. 156:695-702.
Orthopedic disorders
JR Slaughterbeck, K Pankratz, KT Xu, et al. 2004. Canine ovariohysterectomy
and
orchiectomy increases the prevalence of ACL injury. Clinical Orthopedics and
Related
Research. 429: 301-305.
MAE van Hagen, BJ Ducro, J van den Broek, et al., 2005. Incidence, risk
factors, and
heritability estimates of hind limb lameness caused by hip dysplasia in a
birth cohort of
Boxers. American Journal of Veterinary Research. 66(2):307-312.
Mammary and prostate cancer
RJ Padley, DB Dixon, JR Wu-Wong, 2002. Effects of castration on endothelin
receptors.
Clinical Science. 103(suppl. 48):442S-445S.
B Overley, FS Shofer, MH Goldschmidt, et al., 2005. Association between
ovariohysterectomy and feline mammary cancer. Journal of Veterinary Internal
Medicine. 19:560-563.
Session I: Non-reproductive Effects of Spaying and Neutering
Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Non-Surgical
Contraceptive Methods for Pet Population Control . www.acc-d.org
3
B van Goethem, A Schaefers-Okkens, J Kirpensteijn, 2006. Making a rational
choice
between ovariectomy and overiohysterectomy in the dog: A discussion of the
benefits of
either technique. Veterinary Surgery. 35:136-143.
E Teske, EC Naan, EM van Dijk, et al., 2002. Canine prostate carcinoma:
epidemiologic
evidence of an increased risk in castrated dogs. Molecular and Cellular
Endocrinology.
197:251-255.
Session I: Non-reproductive Effects of Spaying and Neutering
Effects on Growth, Hip Dysplasia, Immunology and Tumors
By Dr. Vic Spain
Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Non-Surgical
Contraceptive Methods for Pet Population Control . www.acc-d.org 1
Risks and benefits of neutering and
early-age neutering in dogs and cats
Physical development
Select orthopedic conditions
Obesity
Diabetes
Select neoplastic conditions
C. Victor Spain, DVM, PhD
Philadelphia Department of Public Health
***@cornell.edu
Objectives
!Highlight recent research findings on
associations between neuter status (or time
of neutering) and select medical conditions
in dogs and cats
!Note: using neuter in the broadest sense
"Castration of male dogs and cats
"Ovariectomy (removal of just ovaries) or
ovariohysterectomy of female dogs and cats
Session I: Non-reproductive Effects of Spaying and Neutering
Effects on Growth, Hip Dysplasia, Immunology and Tumors
By Dr. Vic Spain
Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Non-Surgical
Contraceptive Methods for Pet Population Control . www.acc-d.org 2
Limitations/Cautions
!Won't have time to address the quality, generalizability,
and possible biases of every study cited
"If you will be using this information to shape neutering
practices for a shelter or veterinary clinic.
#Review the original source articles
#Contact me or another veterinary epidemiologist
!Risks/benefits may be different for ovariectomy vs.
ovariohysterectomy
!Risks/benefits may differ by age at neutering
!Any policy decision should consider the frequency and
consequences of any condition
Long-Bone Development
!Dogs neutered at 7 weeks or 7 months of age had, on
average, radial lengths 2 cm longer than those left
intact (Salmeri, 1991)
"Pubertal sex hormones are part of the signal for
growth plates to close
"With lower sex hormone levels, the bones
continue to grow later into adolescence
!For cats (Stubbs, 1996), similar delay in growth plate
closure with neutering, but not statistically significant
difference in bone length
Session I: Non-reproductive Effects of Spaying and Neutering
Effects on Growth, Hip Dysplasia, Immunology and Tumors
By Dr. Vic Spain
Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Non-Surgical
Contraceptive Methods for Pet Population Control . www.acc-d.org 3
Does delayed physeal closure lead
to more long-bone fractures?
! Age of neutering not associated with frequency of longbone
fractures (dogs or cats)
" Animals neutered post-pubertally should be the same as those
left intact (so wouldn't expect the neutered animals to be any
lower risk)
! Unaware of any study indicating an association between
neutering and risk of long-bone fractures
! Fairly low incidence of long-bone fractures in neutered dogs
and cats in general
" Retrospective cohort study of 1,579 cats and 1,659 dogs
adopted from a large animal shelter between 1989 and 1998
(Spain, 2004)
! At this point, appears to be a mostly theoretical concern
Cranial cruciate ligament (CCL)
rupture in dogs
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
Male Female
Neutered
Intact
Prevalence of CCL disease
.3,218 dogs
.Single observer not blinded to neuter status at time of assessment
Prevalence of CCL (same as ACL in two-legged animals) rupture
among dogs in one veterinary practice (Slauterbeck, et al., 2004)
Session I: Non-reproductive Effects of Spaying and Neutering
Effects on Growth, Hip Dysplasia, Immunology and Tumors
By Dr. Vic Spain
Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Non-Surgical
Contraceptive Methods for Pet Population Control . www.acc-d.org 4
Mechanism for association between
CCL rupture and neuter status?
!In humans, risk of ACL rupture
associated with gender and among
females, phase of the menstrual cycle
!Not associated with age of neutering
(Spain et al., 2004)
Canine Hip Dysplasia (CHD)
! Difficult to tease out from recent literature
" Many studies of CHD focus on purebred dogs, many of whom
are neutered only after they have been diagnosed with a
potentially heritable problem
" Usually neuter status is not the main focus of these studies
! In a prospective cohort study of purebred boxers, neutering
was associated with 50% increase in incidence of CHD (van
Hagen, 2005)
" Did not present proportion neutered or assess reasons for
neutering (i.e. Were these dogs neutered because they had
poor conformation to begin with?)
! CHD increased with neutering before 6 months of age
(Spain, 2004)
Session I: Non-reproductive Effects of Spaying and Neutering
Effects on Growth, Hip Dysplasia, Immunology and Tumors
By Dr. Vic Spain
Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Non-Surgical
Contraceptive Methods for Pet Population Control . www.acc-d.org 5
Risk of obesity increases with neutering
in dogs and cats
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Neutered
Intact
Mean weight, Kg after 36 week
.One recent example (Kanchuk, 2002)
.16 normal adult cats in laboratory setting, 8 neutered, 8 intact
.Fed ad libitum
Obesity (cont.)
! Cats - Neutering appears to be associated with increased
food consumption, but not necessarily lower metabolic rate
(German et al., 2006)
" In laboratory setting, obesity can be prevented with lower-fat
diet (Nguyen, 2004)
# Is education enough to counteract effect?
" Increased risk of diabetes, lameness, and certain skin
conditions among obese cats (Scarlett, 1998)
! Dogs - Neutering before 6 months of age associated with
lower prevalence of obesity (20%) compared to neutering
after 6 months of age (25%) (Spain, 2004)
" Does neutering early mitigate the increased risk of obesity
associated with neutering in general?
Session I: Non-reproductive Effects of Spaying and Neutering
Effects on Growth, Hip Dysplasia, Immunology and Tumors
By Dr. Vic Spain
Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Non-Surgical
Contraceptive Methods for Pet Population Control . www.acc-d.org 6
Diabetes
!Dogs - Complicated mix of risk factors
" Different forms with different risk factors
" Certain breeds at higher risk
" Possibly secondary to certain endocrine disorders
" Intact bitches can have transient diabetes during pregnancy or
diestrus
# Rarely requires treatment
" Not aware of any studies clearly indicating that neuter status
alone is associated with risk of diabetes
!Cats
"More common among males
"More common among neutered cats
#May be a function of decreased activity and obesity, and
not neuter status per se
Mammary Cancer (Carcinoma)
!Historic studies in Alameda County, CA,
showed strong protective effect of spaying
dogs before second estrus (Schneider,
1969, 1975)
"Based on literature review, probably no
difference between ovariectomy and
ovariohysterectomy (van Goethem, 2006)
!Until recently, less clear in cats
"Overley et al. (2005) - Case/control study of
204 cases and 200 controls
Session I: Non-reproductive Effects of Spaying and Neutering
Effects on Growth, Hip Dysplasia, Immunology and Tumors
By Dr. Vic Spain
Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Non-Surgical
Contraceptive Methods for Pet Population Control . www.acc-d.org 7
Neutering before 1 year of age lowers the risk
of mammary cancer in cats (Overley, 2005)
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Mammary
cancer
Comparison
cat population
Intact
Neutered >1 yr
Neutered <1 yr
Percentage
Odds ratio for neutering before 1 year of age = 0.14
Canine Prostatic Cancer (Carcinoma)
!Traditional thought
"Neutering reduces testosterone levels, which
should, in turn, reduce risk of prostatic cancer
"Castration has been evaluated as a treatment in
human cases
!Recent research indicates that after castration,
human cases become insensitive to
androgens over time
"Endothelin binding increases after castration in
dogs (N=6 dogs, Padley, 2002)
Session I: Non-reproductive Effects of Spaying and Neutering
Effects on Growth, Hip Dysplasia, Immunology and Tumors
By Dr. Vic Spain
Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Non-Surgical
Contraceptive Methods for Pet Population Control . www.acc-d.org 8
Castration associated with increased
risk of prostate cancer (Teske, 2002 )
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Prostate cancer Comparison
dog population
Intact
Neutered
Percentage
.Among 15,000 male dogs admitted to a teaching hospital in the Netherlands
.Odds ratio for neutering > 100 days before diagnosis = 2-3 - 4.3
.Probably much lower overall incidence in dogs than humans (0.4% of
admissions)
Immune status
! Difficult to assess - How can we quantify the outcome?
" Decreased immune activity could lead to increased incidence of
some infections but lower incidence of autoimmune or
inflammatory disorders
! Not aware of any studies clearly indicating an association
between neuter status and overall immune function
" Neutering procedure may be associated with exposure to
infectious agents at the time of the procedure (Howe, 2001)
! Early-age neutering associated with decreased incidence of
some inflammatory conditions in cats (Spain, 2004)
! Early-age neutering not associated with incidence of
repeated infections, demodicosis, or pyoderma in dogs
(Spain, 2004)
Session I: Non-reproductive Effects of Spaying and Neutering
Effects on Growth, Hip Dysplasia, Immunology and Tumors
By Dr. Vic Spain
Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Non-Surgical
Contraceptive Methods for Pet Population Control . www.acc-d.org 9
Summary
!Increased with
neutering
"Obesity (preventable?)
"CCL rupture (dogs)
"Canine hip dysplasia?
"Prostatic cancer (dogs)
!Decreased with
neutering
" Mammary cancer
!Unrelated to neuter status
(or lacking evidence)
" Long-bone fractures
" Diabetes
" Immune status
Session I: Non-reproductive Effects of Spaying and Neutering
Effects on Growth, Hip Dysplasia, Immunology and Tumors
By Dr. Vic Spain
Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Non-Surgical
Contraceptive Methods for Pet Population Control . www.acc-d.org 10
Acknowledgements
!Dr. Jan Scarlett, Cornell University
!PETsMART Charities
!Kenneth A. Scott Charitable Trust
Human_And_Animal_Behaviour_Forensic_Sciences_Research_Laboratory
2008-09-06 21:54:56 UTC
Page 1 of 12

Long-Term Health Risks and Benefits Associated with Spay / Neuter in Dogs

Laura J. Sanborn, M.S.

May 14, 2007

Precis

At some point, most of us with an interest in dogs will have to consider
whether or not to spay / neuter our

pet. Tradition holds that the benefits of doing so at an early age outweigh
the risks. Often, tradition holds

sway in the decision-making process even after countervailing evidence has
accumulated.

Ms Sanborn has reviewed the veterinary medical literature in an exhaustive
and scholarly treatise,

attempting to unravel the complexities of the subject. More than 50
peer-reviewed papers were examined to

assess the health impacts of spay / neuter in female and male dogs,
respectively. One cannot ignore the

findings of increased risk from osteosarcoma, hemangiosarcoma,
hypothyroidism, and other less frequently

occurring diseases associated with neutering male dogs. It would be
irresponsible of the veterinary

profession and the pet owning community to fail to weigh the relative costs
and benefits of neutering on the

animal's health and well-being. The decision for females may be more
complex, further emphasizing the

need for individualized veterinary medical decisions, not standard operating
procedures for all patients.

No sweeping generalizations are implied in this review. Rather, the author
asks us to consider all the health

and disease information available as individual animals are evaluated. Then,
the best decisions should be

made accounting for gender, age, breed, and even the specific conditions
under which the long-term care,

housing and training of the animal will occur.

This important review will help veterinary medical care providers as well as
pet owners make informed

decisions. Who could ask for more?

Larry S. Katz, PhD

Associate Professor and Chair

Animal Sciences

Rutgers University

New Brunswick, NJ 08901

INTRODUCTION

Dog owners in America are frequently advised to spay/neuter their dogs for
health reasons. A number of

health benefits are cited, yet evidence is usually not cited to support the
alleged health benefits.

When discussing the health impacts of spay/neuter, health risks are often
not mentioned. At times, some

risks are mentioned, but the most severe risks usually are not.

This article is an attempt to summarize the long-term health risks and
benefits associated with spay/neuter

in dogs that can be found in the veterinary medical literature. This article
will not discuss the impact of

spay/neuter on population control, or the impact of spay/neuter on behavior.

Nearly all of the health risks and benefits summarized in this article are
findings from retrospective

epidemiological research studies of dogs, which examine potential
associations by looking backwards in

time. A few are from prospective research studies, which examine potential
associations by looking forward

in time.

SUMMARY

An objective reading of the veterinary medical literature reveals a complex
situation with respect to the longterm

health risks and benefits associated with spay/neuter in dogs. The evidence
shows that spay/neuter

Page 2 of 12

correlates with both positive AND adverse health effects in dogs. It also
suggests how much we really do

not yet understand about this subject.

On balance, it appears that no compelling case can be made for neutering
most male dogs, especially

immature male dogs, in order to prevent future health problems. The number
of health problems associated

with neutering may exceed the associated health benefits in most cases.

On the positive side, neutering male dogs

. eliminates the small risk (probably <1%) of dying from testicular cancer

. reduces the risk of non-cancerous prostate disorders

. reduces the risk of perianal fistulas

. may possibly reduce the risk of diabetes (data inconclusive)

On the negative side, neutering male dogs

. if done before 1 year of age, significantly increases the risk of
osteosarcoma (bone cancer); this is a

common cancer in medium/large and larger breeds with a poor prognosis.

. increases the risk of cardiac hemangiosarcoma by a factor of 1.6

. triples the risk of hypothyroidism

. increases the risk of progressive geriatric cognitive impairment

. triples the risk of obesity, a common health problem in dogs with many
associated health problems

. quadruples the small risk (<0.6%) of prostate cancer

. doubles the small risk (<1%) of urinary tract cancers

. increases the risk of orthopedic disorders

. increases the risk of adverse reactions to vaccinations

For female dogs, the situation is more complex. The number of health
benefits associated with spaying may

exceed the associated health problems in some (not all) cases. On balance,
whether spaying improves the

odds of overall good health or degrades them probably depends on the age of
the female dog and the

relative risk of various diseases in the different breeds.

On the positive side, spaying female dogs

. if done before 2.5 years of age, greatly reduces the risk of mammary
tumors, the most common

malignant tumors in female dogs

. nearly eliminates the risk of pyometra, which otherwise would affect about
23% of intact female

dogs; pyometra kills about 1% of intact female dogs

. reduces the risk of perianal fistulas

. removes the very small risk (0.5%) from uterine, cervical, and ovarian
tumors

On the negative side, spaying female dogs

. if done before 1 year of age, significantly increases the risk of
osteosarcoma (bone cancer); this is a

common cancer in larger breeds with a poor prognosis

. increases the risk of splenic hemangiosarcoma by a factor of 2.2 and
cardiac hemangiosarcoma by

a factor of >5; this is a common cancer and major cause of death in some
breeds

. triples the risk of hypothyroidism

. increases the risk of obesity by a factor of 1.6-2, a common health
problem in dogs with many

associated health problems

. causes urinary "spay incontinence" in 4-20% of female dogs

. increases the risk of persistent or recurring urinary tract infections by
a factor of 3-4

. increases the risk of recessed vulva, vaginal dermatitis, and vaginitis,
especially for female dogs

spayed before puberty

. doubles the small risk (<1%) of urinary tract tumors

. increases the risk of orthopedic disorders

. increases the risk of adverse reactions to vaccinations

One thing is clear - much of the spay/neuter information that is available
to the public is unbalanced and

contains claims that are exaggerated or unsupported by evidence. Rather than
helping to educate pet

Page 3 of 12

owners, much of it has contributed to common misunderstandings about the
health risks and benefits

associated of spay/neuter in dogs.

The traditional spay/neuter age of six months as well as the modern practice
of pediatric spay/neuter appear

to predispose dogs to health risks that could otherwise be avoided by
waiting until the dog is physically

mature, or perhaps in the case of many male dogs, foregoing it altogether
unless medically necessary.

The balance of long-term health risks and benefits of spay/neuter will vary
from one dog to the next. Breed,

age, and gender are variables that must be taken into consideration in
conjunction with non-medical factors

for each individual dog. Across-the-board recommendations for all pet dogs
do not appear to be

supportable from findings in the veterinary medical literature.

FINDINGS FROM STUDIES

This section summarizes the diseases or conditions that have been studied
with respect to spay/neuter in

dogs.

Complications from Spay/Neuter Surgery

All surgery incurs some risk of complications, including adverse reactions
to anesthesia, hemorrhage,

inflammation, infection, etc. Complications include only immediate and near
term impacts that are clearly

linked to the surgery, not to longer term impacts that can only be assessed
by research studies.

At one veterinary teaching hospital where complications were tracked, the
rates of intraoperative,

postoperative and total complications were 6.3%, 14.1% and 20.6%,
respectively as a result of spaying

female dogs1. Other studies found a rate of total complications from spaying
of 17.7%2 and 23%3. A study

of Canadian veterinary private practitioners found complication rates of 22%
and 19% for spaying female

dogs and neutering male dogs, respectively4.

Serious complications such as infections, abscesses, rupture of the surgical
wound, and chewed out sutures

were reported at a 1- 4% frequency, with spay and castration surgeries
accounting for 90% and 10% of

these complications, respectively.4

The death rate due to complications from spay/neuter is low, at around
0.1%2.

Prostate Cancer

Much of the spay/neuter information available to the public asserts that
neutering will reduce or eliminate the

risk that male dogs develop prostate cancer. This would not be an
unreasonable assumption, given that

prostate cancer in humans is linked to testosterone. But the evidence in
dogs does not support this claim.

In fact, the strongest evidence suggests just the opposite.

There have been several conflicting epidemiological studies over the years
that found either an increased

risk or a decreased risk of prostate cancer in neutered dogs. These studies
did not utilize control

populations, rendering these results at best difficult to interpret. This
may partially explain the conflicting

results.

More recently, two retrospective studies were conducted that did utilize
control populations. One of these

studies involved a dog population in Europe5 and the other involved a dog
population in America6. Both

studies found that neutered male dogs have a four times higher risk of
prostate cancer than intact dogs.

Based on their results, the researchers suggest a cause-and-effect
relationship: "this suggests that

castration does not initiate the development of prostatic carcinoma in the
dog, but does favor tumor

progression"5 and also "Our study found that most canine prostate cancers
are of ductal/urothelial

origin..The relatively low incidence of prostate cancer in intact dogs may
suggest that testicular hormones

Page 4 of 12

are in fact protective against ductal/urothelial prostatic carcinoma, or may
have indirect effects on cancer

development by changing the environment in the prostate."6

This needs to be put in perspective. Unlike the situation in humans,
prostate cancer is uncommon in dogs.

Given an incidence of prostate cancer in dogs of less than 0.6% from
necropsy studies7, it is difficult to see

that the risk of prostate cancer should factor heavily into most neutering
decisions. There is evidence for an

increased risk of prostate cancer in at least one breed (Bouviers)5, though
very little data so far to guide us

in regards to other breeds.

Testicular Cancer

Since the testicles are removed with neutering, castration removes any risk
of testicular cancer (assuming

the castration is done before cancer develops). This needs to be compared to
the risk of testicular cancer in

intact dogs.

Testicular tumors are not uncommon in older intact dogs, with a reported
incidence of 7%8. However, the

prognosis for treating testicular tumors is very good owing to a low rate of
metastasis9, so testicular cancer

is an uncommon cause of death in intact dogs. For example, in a Purdue
University breed health survey of

Golden Retrievers10, deaths due to testicular cancer were sufficiently
infrequent that they did not appear on

list of significant causes of "Years of Potential Life Lost for Veterinary
Confirmed Cause of Death" even

though 40% of GR males were intact. Furthermore, the GRs who were treated
for testicular tumors had a

90.9% cure rate. This agrees well with other work that found 6-14% rates of
metastasis for testicular tumors

in dogs11.

The high cure rate of testicular tumors combined with their frequency
suggests that fewer than 1% of intact

male dogs will die of testicular cancer.

In summary, though it may be the most common reason why many advocate
neutering young male dogs,

the risk from life threatening testicular cancer is sufficiently low that
neutering most male dogs to prevent it is

difficult to justify.

An exception might be bilateral or unilateral cryptorchids, as testicles
that are retained in the abdomen are

13.6 times more likely to develop tumors than descended testicles12 and it
is also more difficult to detect

tumors in undescended testicles by routine physical examination.

Osteosarcoma (Bone Cancer)

A multi-breed case-control study of the risk factors for osteosarcoma found
that spay/neutered dogs (males

or females) had twice the risk of developing osteosarcoma as did intact
dogs13.

This risk was further studied in Rottweilers, a breed with a relatively high
risk of osteosarcoma. This

retrospective cohort study broke the risk down by age at spay/neuter, and
found that the elevated risk of

osteosarcoma is associated with spay/neuter of young dogs14. Rottweilers
spayed/neutered before one

year of age were 3.8 (males) or 3.1 (females) times more likely to develop
osteosarcoma than intact dogs.

Indeed, the combination of breed risk and early spay/neuter meant that
Rottweilers spayed/neutered before

one year of age had a 28.4% (males) and 25.1% (females) risk of developing
osteosarcoma. These results

are consistent with the earlier multi-breed study13 but have an advantage of
assessing risk as a function of

age at neuter. A logical conclusion derived from combining the findings of
these two studies is that

spay/neuter of dogs before 1 year of age is associated with a significantly
increased risk of osteosarcoma.

The researchers suggest a cause-and-effect relationship, as sex hormones are
known to influence the

maintenance of skeletal structure and mass, and also because their findings
showed an inverse relationship

between time of exposure to sex hormones and risk of osteosarcoma.14

Page 5 of 12

The risk of osteosarcoma increases with increasing breed size and especially
height13. It is a common

cause of death in medium/large, large, and giant breeds. Osteosarcoma is the
third most common cause of

death in Golden Retrievers10 and is even more common in larger breeds13.

Given the poor prognosis of osteosarcoma and its frequency in many breeds,
spay/neuter of immature dogs

in the medium/large, large, and giant breeds is apparently associated with a
significant and elevated risk of

death due to osteosarcoma.

Mammary Cancer (Breast Cancer)

Mammary tumors are by far the most common tumors in intact female dogs,
constituting some 53% of all

malignant tumors in female dogs in a study of dogs in Norway15 where spaying
is much less common than in

the USA.

50-60% of mammary tumors are malignant, for which there is a significant
risk of metastasis16. Mammary

tumors in dogs have been found to have estrogen receptors17, and the
published research18 shows that the

relative risk (odds ratio) that a female will develop mammary cancer
compared to the risk in intact females is

dependent on how many estrus cycles she experiences:

# of estrus cycles before spay Odds Ratio

None 0.005

1 0.08

2 or more 0.26

Intact 1.00

The same data when categorized differently showed that the relative risk
(odds ratio) that females will

develop mammary cancer compared to the risk in intact females indicated
that:

Age at Spaying Odds Ratio

 29 months 0.06

30 months 0.40 (not statistically significant at the P<0.05 level)

Intact 1.00

Please note that these are RELATIVE risks. This study has been referenced
elsewhere many times but the

results have often been misrepresented as absolute risks.

A similar reduction in breast cancer risk was found for women under the age
of 40 who lost their estrogen

production due to "artificial menopause"19 and breast cancer in humans is
known to be estrogen activated.

Mammary cancer was found to be the 10th most common cause of years of lost
life in Golden Retrievers,

even though 86% of female GRs were spayed, at a median age of 3.4 yrs10.
Considering that the female

subset accounts for almost all mammary cancer cases, it probably would rank
at about the 5th most common

cause of years of lost life in female GRs. It would rank higher still if
more female GRs had been kept intact

up to 30 months of age.

Boxers, cocker spaniels, English Springer spaniels, and dachshunds are
breeds at high risk of mammary

tumors15. A population of mostly intact female Boxers was found to have a
40% chance of developing

mammary cancer between the ages of 6-12 years of age15. There are some
indications that purebred dogs

may be at higher risk than mixed breed dogs, and purebred dogs with high
inbreeding coefficients may be at

higher risk than those with low inbreeding coefficients20. More
investigation is required to determine if these

are significant.

In summary, spaying female dogs significantly reduces the risk of mammary
cancer (a common cancer),

and the fewer estrus cycles experienced at least up to 30 months of age, the
lower the risk will be.

Page 6 of 12

Female Reproductive Tract Cancer (Uterine, Cervical, and Ovarian Cancers)

Uterine/cervical tumors are rare in dogs, constituting just 0.3% of tumors
in dogs21.

Spaying will remove the risk of ovarian tumors, but the risk is only 0.5%22.

While spaying will remove the risk of reproductive tract tumors, it is
unlikely that surgery can be justified to

prevent the risks of uterine, cervical, and ovarian cancers as the risks are
so low.

Urinary Tract Cancer (Bladder and Urethra Cancers)

An age-matched retrospective study found that spay/neuter dogs were two
times more likely to develop

lower urinary tract tumors (bladder or urethra) compared to intact dogs23.
These tumors are nearly always

malignant, but are infrequent, accounting for less than 1% of canine tumors.
So this risk is unlikely to weigh

heavily on spay/neuter decisions.

Airedales, Beagles, and Scottish Terriers are at elevated risk for urinary
tract cancer while German

Shepherds have a lower than average risk23.

Hemangiosarcoma

Hemangiosarcoma is a common cancer in dogs. It is a major cause of death in
some breeds, such as

Salukis, French Bulldogs, Irish Water Spaniels, Flat Coated Retrievers,
Golden Retrievers, Boxers, Afghan

Hounds, English Setters, Scottish Terriesr, Boston Terriers, Bulldogs, and
German Shepherd Dogs24.

In an aged-matched case controlled study, spayed females were found to have
a 2.2 times higher risk of

splenic hemangiosarcoma compared to intact females24.

A retrospective study of cardiac hemangiosarcoma risk factors found a >5
times greater risk in spayed

female dogs compared to intact female dogs and a 1.6 times higher risk in
neutered male dogs compared to

intact male dogs.25 The authors suggest a protective effect of sex hormones
against hemangiosarcoma,

especially in females.

In breeds where hermangiosarcoma is an important cause of death, the
increased risk associated with

spay/neuter is likely one that should factor into decisions on whether or
when to sterilize a dog.

Hypothyroidism

Spay/neuter in dogs was found to be correlated with a three fold increased
risk of hypothyroidism compared

to intact dogs. 26.

The researchers suggest a cause-and-effect relationship: They wrote: "More
important [than the mild direct

impact on thyroid function] in the association between [spaying and]
neutering and hypothyroidism may be

the effect of sex hormones on the immune system. Castration increases the
severity of autoimmune

thyroiditis in mice" which may explain the link between spay/neuter and
hypothyroidism in dogs.

Hypothyroidism in dogs causes obesity, lethargy, hair loss, and reproductive
abnormalities.27

The lifetime risk of hypothyroidism in breed health surveys was found to be
1 in 4 in Golden Retrievers10, 1

in 3 in Akitas28, and 1 in 13 in Great Danes29.

Page 7 of 12

Obesity

Owing to changes in metabolism, spay/neuter dogs are more likely to be
overweight or obese than intact

dogs. One study found a two fold increased risk of obesity in spayed females
compared to intact females30.

Another study found that spay/neuter dogs were 1.6 (females) or 3.0 (males)
times more likely to be obese

than intact dogs, and 1.2 (females) or 1.5 (males) times more likely to be
overweight than intact dogs31.

A survey study of veterinary practices in the UK found that 21% of dogs were
obese.30

Being obese and/or overweight is associated with a host of health problems
in dogs. Overweight dogs are

more likely to be diagnosed with hyperadrenocorticism, ruptured cruciate
ligament, hypothyroidism, lower

urinary tract disease, and oral disease32. Obese dogs are more likely to be
diagnosed with hypothyroidism,

diabetes mellitus, pancreatitis, ruptured cruciate ligament, and neoplasia
(tumors)32.

Diabetes

Some data indicate that neutering doubles the risk of diabetes in male dogs,
but other data showed no

significant change in diabetes risk with neutering33. In the same studies,
no association was found between

spaying and the risk of diabetes.

Adverse Vaccine Reactions

A retrospective cohort study of adverse vaccine reactions in dogs was
conducted, which included allergic

reactions, hives, anaphylaxis, cardiac arrest, cardiovascular shock, and
sudden death. Adverse reactions

were 30% more likely in spayed females than intact females, and 27% more
likely in neutered males than

intact males34.

The investigators discuss possible cause-and-effect mechanisms for this
finding, including the roles that sex

hormones play in body's ability to mount an immune response to
vaccination.34

Toy breeds and smaller breeds are at elevated risk of adverse vaccine
reactions, as are Boxers, English

Bulldogs, Lhasa Apsos, Weimaraners, American Eskimo Dogs, Golden Retrievers,
Basset Hounds, Welsh

Corgis, Siberian Huskies, Great Danes, Labrador Retrievers, Doberman
Pinschers, American Pit Bull

Terriers, and Akitas.34 Mixed breed dogs were found to be at lower risk, and
the authors suggest genetic

hetereogeneity (hybrid vigor) as the cause.

Urogenital Disorders

Urinary incontinence is common in spayed female dogs, which can occur soon
after spay surgery or after a

delay of up to several years. The incidence rate in various studies is 4-20%
35,36,37 for spayed females

compared to only 0.3% in intact females38. Urinary incontinence is so
strongly linked to spaying that it is

commonly called "spay incontinence" and is caused by urethral sphincter
incompetence39, though the

biological mechanism is unknown. Most (but not all) cases of urinary
incontinence respond to medical

treatment, and in many cases this treatment needs to be continued for the
duration of the dog's life.40

A retrospective study found that persistent or recurring urinary tract
(bladder) infections (UTIs) were 3-4

times more likely in spayed females dogs than in intact females41. Another
retrospective study found that

female dogs spayed before 5 œ months of age were 2.76 times more likely to
develop UTIs compared to

those spayed after 5 œ months of age.42

Depending on the age of surgery, spaying causes abnormal development of the
external genitalia. Spayed

females were found to have an increased risk of recessed vulva, vaginal
dermatitis, vaginitis, and UTIs.43

The risk is higher still for female dogs spayed before puberty.43

Page 8 of 12

Pyometra (Infection of the Uterus)

Pet insurance data in Sweden (where spaying is very uncommon) found that 23%
of all female dogs

developed pyometra before 10 years of age44. Bernese Mountain dogs,
Rottweilers, rough-haired Collies,

Cavalier King Charles Spaniels and Golden Retrievers were found to be high
risk breeds44. Female dogs

that have not whelped puppies are at elevated risk for pyometra45. Rarely,
spayed female dogs can

develop "stump pyometra" related to incomplete removal of the uterus.

Pyometra can usually be treated surgically or medically, but 4% of pyometra
cases led to death44.

Combined with the incidence of pyometra, this suggests that about 1% of
intact female dogs will die from

pyometra.

Perianal Fistulas

Male dogs are twice as likely to develop perianal fistulas as females, and
spay/neutered dogs have a

decreased risk compared to intact dogs46.

German Shepherd Dogs and Irish Setters are more likely to develop perianal
fistulas than are other

breeds.46

Non-cancerous Disorders of the Prostate Gland

The incidence of benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH, enlarged prostate)
increases with age in intact male

dogs, and occurs in more than 80% of intact male dogs older than the age of
5 years47. Most cases of BPH

cause no problems, but in some cases the dog will have difficulty defecating
or urinating.

Neutering will prevent BPH. If neutering is done after the prostate has
become enlarged, the enlarged

prostate will shrink relatively quickly.

BPH is linked to other problems of the prostate gland, including infections,
abscesses, and cysts, which can

sometimes have serious consequences.

Orthopedic Disorders

In a study of beagles, surgical removal of the ovaries (as happens in
spaying) caused an increase in the rate

of remodeling of the ilium (pelvic bone)48, suggesting an increased risk of
hip dysplasia with spaying.

Spaying was also found to cause a net loss of bone mass in the spine 49.

Spay/neuter of immature dogs delays the closure of the growth plates in
bones that are still growing,

causing those bones to end up significantly longer than in intact dogs or
those spay/neutered after

maturity50. Since the growth plates in various bones close at different
times, spay/neuter that is done after

some growth plates have closed but before other growth plates have closed
might result in a dog with

unnatural proportions, possibly impacting performance and long term
durability of the joints.

Spay/neuter is associated with a two fold increased risk of cranial cruciate
ligament rupture51. Perhaps this

is associated with the increased risk of obesity30.

Spay/neuter before 5 œ months of age is associated with a 70% increased
aged-adjusted risk of hip

dysplasia compared to dogs spayed/neutered after 5 œ months of age, though
there were some indications

that the former may have had a lower severity manifestation of the
disease42. The researchers suggest "it

is possible that the increase in bone length that results from early-age
gonadectomy results in changes in

joint conformation, which could lead to a diagnosis of hip dysplasia."

Page 9 of 12

In a breed health survey study of Airedales, spay/neuter dogs were
significantly more likely to suffer hip

dysplasia as well as "any musculoskeletal disorder", compared to intact
dogs52, however possible

confounding factors were not controlled for, such as the possibility that
some dogs might have been

spayed/neutered because they had hip dysplasia or other musculoskeletal
disorders.

Compared to intact dogs, another study found that dogs neutered six months
prior to a diagnosis of hip

dysplasia were 1.5 times as likely to develop clinical hip dysplasia.53

Compared to intact dogs, spayed/neutered dogs were found to have a 3.1 fold
higher risk of patellar

luxation.54

Geriatric Cognitive Impairment

Neutered male dogs and spayed female dogs are at increased risk of
progressing from mild to severe

geriatric cognitive impairment compared to intact male dogs55. There weren't
enough intact geriatric

females available for the study to determine their risk.

Geriatric cognitive impairment includes disorientation in the house or
outdoors, changes in social

interactions with human family members, loss of house training, and changes
in the sleep-wake cycle55.

The investigators state "This finding is in line with current research on
the neuro-protective roles of

testosterone and estrogen at the cellular level and the role of estrogen in
preventing Alzheimer's disease in

human females. One would predict that estrogens would have a similar
protective role in the sexually intact

female dogs; unfortunately too few sexually intact female dogs were
available for inclusion in the present

study to test the hypothesis"55

CONCLUSIONS

An objective reading of the veterinary medical literature reveals a complex
situation with respect to the longterm

health risks and benefits associated with spay/neuter in dogs. The evidence
shows that spay/neuter

correlates with both positive AND adverse health effects in dogs. It also
suggests how much we really do

not yet understand about this subject.

On balance, it appears that no compelling case can be made for neutering
most male dogs to prevent future

health problems, especially immature male dogs. The number of health
problems associated with neutering

may exceed the associated health benefits in most cases.

For female dogs, the situation is more complex. The number of health
benefits associated with spaying may

exceed the associated health problems in many (not all) cases. On balance,
whether spaying improves the

odds of overall good health or degrades them probably depends on the age of
the dog and the relative risk

of various diseases in the different breeds.

The traditional spay/neuter age of six months as well as the modern practice
of pediatric spay/neuter appear

to predispose dogs to health risks that could otherwise be avoided by
waiting until the dog is physically

mature, or perhaps in the case of many male dogs, foregoing it altogether
unless medically necessary.

The balance of long-term health risks and benefits of spay/neuter will vary
from one dog to the next. Breed,

age, and gender are variables that must be taken into consideration in
conjunction with non-medical factors

for each individual dog. Across-the-board recommendations for all dogs do
not appear to be supportable

from findings in the veterinary medical literature.

Page 10 of 12

REFERENCES

1 Burrow R, Batchelor D, Cripps P. Complications observed during and after
ovariohysterectomy of 142

bitches at a veterinary teaching hospital. Vet Rec. 2005 Dec
24-31;157(26):829-33.

2 Pollari FL, Bonnett BN, Bamsey, SC, Meek, AH, Allen, DG (1996)
Postoperative complications of elective

surgeries in dogs and cats determined by examining electronic and medical
records. Journal of the

American Veterinary Medical Association 208, 1882-1886

3 Dorn AS, Swist RA. (1977) Complications of canine ovariohysterectomy.
Journal of the American Animal

Hospital Association 13, 720-724

4 Pollari FL, Bonnett BN. Evaluation of postoperative complications
following elective surgeries of dogs and

cats at private practices using computer records, Can Vet J. 1996 November;
37(11): 672-678.

5 Teske E, Naan EC, van Dijk EM, van Garderen E, Schalken JA. Canine
prostate carcinoma:

epidemiological evidence of an increased risk in castrated dogs. Mol Cell
Endocrinol. 2002 Nov 29;197(1-

2):251-5.

6 Sorenmo KU, Goldschmidt M, Shofer F, Ferrocone J. Immunohistochemical
characterization of canine

prostatic carcinoma and correlation with castration status and castration
time. Vet Comparative Oncology.

2003 Mar; 1 (1): 48

7 Weaver, AD. Fifteen cases of prostatic carcinoma in the dog. Vet Rec.
1981; 109, 71-75.

8 Cohen D, Reif JS, Brodey RS, et al: Epidemiological analysis of the most
prevalent sites and types of

canine neoplasia observed in a veterinary hospital. Cancer Res 34:2859-2868,
1974

9 Theilen GH, Madewell BR. Tumors of the genital system. Part II. In:Theilen
GH, Madewell BR, eds.

Veterinary cancer medicine. 2nd ed.Lea and Febinger, 1987:583-600.

10 Glickman LT, Glickman N, Thorpe R. The Golden Retriever Club of America
National Health Survey 1998-

1999 http://www.vet.purdue.edu//epi/golden_retriever_final22.pdf

11 Handbook of Small Animal Practice, 3rd ed

12 Hayes HM Jr, Pendergrass TW. Canine testicular tumors: epidemiologic
features of 410 dogs. Int J

Cancer 1976 Oct 15;18(4):482-7

13 Ru G, Terracini B, Glickman LT. (1998) Host-related risk factors for
canine osteosarcoma. Vet J 1998

Jul;156(1):31-9

14 Cooley DM, Beranek BC, Schlittler DL, Glickman NW, Glickman LT, Waters
DJ. Endogenous gonadal

hormone exposure and bone sarcoma risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev.
2002 Nov;11(11):1434-40.

15 Moe L. Population-based incidence of mammary tumours in some dog breeds.
J of Reproduction and

Fertility Supplment 57, 439-443.

16 Ferguson HR; Vet Clinics of N Amer: Small Animal Practice; Vol 15, No 3,
May 1985

17 MacEwen EG, Patnaik AK, Harvey HJ Estrogen receptors in canine mammary
tumors. Cancer Res., 42:

2255-2259, 1982.

18 Schneider, R, Dorn, CR, Taylor, DON. Factors Influencing Canine Mammary
Cancer Development and

Postsurgical Survival. J Natl Cancer Institute, Vol 43, No 6, Dec. 1969

19 Feinleib M: Breast cancer and artificial menopause: A cohort study. J Nat
Cancer Inst 41: 315-329, 1968.

20 Dorn CR and Schneider R. Inbreeding and canine mammary cancer. A
retrospective study. J Natl Cancer

Inst. 57: 545-548, 1976.

21 Brodey RS: Canine and feline neoplasia. Adv Vet Sci Comp Med 14:309-354,
1970

22 Hayes A, Harvey H J: Treatment of metastatic granulosa cell tumor in a
dog. J Am Vet Med Assoc

174:1304-1306, 1979

Page 11 of 12

23 Norris AM, Laing EJ, Valli VE, Withrow SJ. J Vet Intern Med 1992 May;
6(3):145-53

24 Prymak C, McKee LJ, Goldschmidt MH, Glickman LT. Epidemiologic, clinical,
pathologic, and prognostic

characteristics of splenic hemangiosarcoma and splenic hematoma in dogs: 217
cases (1985). J Am Vet

Med Assoc 1988 Sep; 193(6):706-12

25 Ware WA, Hopper, DL. Cardiac Tumors in Dogs: 1982-1995. J Vet Intern Med
1999;13:95-103.

26 Panciera DL. Hypothyroidism in dogs: 66 cases (1987-1992). J Am Vet Med
Assoc. 1994 Mar

1;204(5):761-7

27 Panciera DL. Canine hypothyroidism. Part I. Clinical findings and control
of thyroid hormone secretion and

metabolism. Compend Contin Pract Vet 1990: 12: 689-701.

28 Glickman LT, Glickman N, Raghaven M, The Akita Club of America National
Health Survey 2000-2001.

http://www.vet.purdue.edu/epi/akita_final_2.pdf

29 Glickman LT, HogenEsch H, Raghavan M, Edinboro C, Scott-Moncrieff C.
Final Report to the Hayward

Foundation and The Great Dane Health Foundation of a Study Titled Vaccinosis
in Great Danes. 1 Jan

2004.
http://www.vet.purdue.edu/epi/great_dane_vaccinosis_fullreport_jan04.pdf

30 Edney AT, Smith PM. Study of obesity in dogs visiting veterinary
practices in the United Kingdom. .Vet

Rec. 1986 Apr 5;118(14):391-6.

31 McGreevy PD, Thomson PC, Pride C, Fawcett A, Grassi T, Jones B.
Prevalence of obesity in dogs

examined by Australian veterinary practices and the risk factors involved.
Vet Rec. 2005 May

28;156(22):695-702.

32 Lund EM, Armstrong PJ, Kirk, CA, Klausner, JS. Prevalence and Risk
Factors for Obesity in Adult Dogs

from Private US Veterinary Practices. Intern J Appl Res Vet Med . Vol. 4,
No. 2, 2006.

33 Marmor M, Willeberg P, Glickman LT, Priester WA, Cypess RH, Hurvitz AI.
Epizootiologic patterns of

diabetes mellitus in dogs Am J Vet Res. 1982 Mar;43(3):465-70. ..

34 Moore GE, Guptill LF, Ward MP, Glickman NW, Faunt KF, Lewis HB, Glickman
LT. Adverse events

diagnosed within three days of vaccine administration in dogs. JAVMA Vol
227, No 7, Oct 1, 2005

35 Thrusfield MV, Holt PE, Muirhead RH. Acquired urinary incontinence in
bitches: its incidence and

relationship to neutering practices.. J Small Anim Pract. 1998.
Dec;39(12):559-66.

36 Stocklin-Gautschi NM, Hassig M, Reichler IM, Hubler M, Arnold S. The
relationship of urinary

incontinence to early spaying in bitches. J Reprod Fertil Suppl.
2001;57:233-6...

37 Arnold S, Arnold P, Hubler M, Casal M, and Rüsch P. Urinary Incontinence
in spayed bitches: prevalence

and breed disposition. European Journal of Campanion Animal Practice. 131,
259-263.

38 Thrusfield MV 1985 Association between urinary incontinence and spaying
in bitches Vet Rec 116 695

39 Richter KP, Ling V. Clinical response and urethral pressure profile
changes after phenypropanolamine in

dogs with primary sphincter incompetence. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1985: 187:
605-611.

40 Holt PE. Urinary incontinence in dogs and cats. Vet Rec 1990: 127:
347-350.

41 Seguin MA, Vaden SL, Altier C, Stone E, Levine JF (2003) Persistent
Urinary Tract Infections and

Reinfections in 100 Dogs (1989-1999). Journal of Veterinary Internal
Medicine: Vol. 17, No. 5 pp. 622-631.

42 Spain CV, Scarlett JM, Houpt KA. Long-term risks and benefits of
early-age gonadectomy in dogs.

JAVMA 2004;224:380-387.

43 Verstegen-Onclin K, Verstegen J. Non-reproductive Effects of Spaying and
Neutering: Effects on the

Urogenital System. Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on
Non-Surgical

Contraceptive Methods for Pet Population Control

http://www.acc-d.org/2006%20Symposium%20Docs/Session%20I.pdf

44 Hagman R: New aspects of canine pyometra. Doctoral thesis, Swedish
University of Agricultural

Sciences, Uppsala, 2004.

Page 12 of 12

45 Chastain CB, Panciera D, Waters C: Associations between age, parity,
hormonal therapy and breed, and

pyometra in Finnish dogs. Small Anim Endocrinol 1999; 9: 8.

46 Killingsworth CR, Walshaw R, Dunstan RW, Rosser, EJ. Bacterial population
and histologic changes in

dogs with perianal fistula. Am J Vet Res, Vol 49, No. 10, Oct 1988.

47 Johnston SD, Kamolpatana K, Root-Kustritz MV, Johnston GR, Prostatic
disorders in the dog. Anim

Reprod. Sci Jul 2;60-61:405-415. .

48 Dannuccia GA, Martin RB., Patterson-Buckendahl P Ovariectomy and
trabecular bone remodeling in the

dog. Calcif Tissue Int 1986; 40: 194-199.

49 Martin RB, Butcher RL, Sherwood L,L Buckendahl P, Boyd RD, Farris D,
Sharkey N, Dannucci G. Effects

of ovariectomy in beagle dogs. Bone 1987; 8:23-31

50 Salmeri KR, Bloomberg MS, Scruggs SL, Shille V. Gonadectomy in immature
dogs: Effects on skeletal,

physical, and behavioral development, JAVMA, Vol 198, No. 7, April 1991.

51 Whitehair JG, Vasseur PB, Willits NH. Epidemiology of cranial cruciate
ligament rupture in dogs. J Am

Vet Med Assoc. 1993 Oct 1;203(7):1016-9.

52 Glickman LT, Airedale Terrier Club of America, Airedale Terrier Health
Survey 2000-2001

http://www.vet.purdue.edu//epi/Airedale%20final%20report_revised.pdf

53 van Hagen MA, Ducro BJ, van den Broek J, Knol BW. Incidence, risk
factors, and heritability estimates of

hind limb lameness caused by hip dysplasia in a birth cohort of boxers. Am J
Vet Res. 2005 Feb;66(2):307-

12.

54 B. Vidoni, I. Sommerfeld-Stur und E. Eisenmenger: Diagnostic and genetic
aspects of patellar luxation in

small and miniature breed dogs in Austria. Wien.Tierarztl.Mschr. (2005) 92,
p170 - 181

55 Hart BL. Effect of gonadectomy on subsequent development of age-related
cognitive impairment in dogs.

J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2001 Jul 1;219(1):51-6.
Human_And_Animal_Behaviour_Forensic_Sciences_Research_Laboratory
2008-09-07 03:38:12 UTC
HOWEDY deja.clueless, you pathetic miserable stinkin
rotten lyin animal murderin punk thug coward active
accute chronic life long incurable malignant maliciHOWES
MENTAL CASE,
Hi! My dog is at the vet being neutered.
Surgical sexual mutilation CAUSES life-long life heelth an
temperament problems often ending in MURDERIN your
ill trained ill behaved deathly ill dogs <{}: ~ ( >
I know they will have lots of advice for us when we pick him up but if
any of you have anything to add (especially
the stuff they often leave out), I'd appreciate it!
Like the risk of INFECTIONS and EMBOLYZMS?
IME with neutering pets, it was not a big deal.
Not for *you*, you pathetic miserable stinkin rotten lyin
animal murderin MENTAL CASE <{}: ~ ( >
They were neutered, they came home, stumbled around a
bit as the anesthetic wore off, and a few hours later it was like nothing
happened.
INDEEDY~!:

"dejablues" <***@hotmail.com> wrote in message news:***@uni-berlin.de...

I recently rehomed one of my dogs that
submissively urinated, we tried for two
years to get him over it but nothing worked.
It is not a behavior I can live with.

------------------

THAT'S CAUSED BY SURGICAL SEXUAL MUTILATION <{}: ~ ( >
Was it done by laser or the old-fashioned way?
BWEEEAAAHAAAHAAA~!~!~!
STOP REPLYING TO THIS NUTCASE, ESPECIALLY
WITHOUT DELETING HIS SPEW.
AND STOP CROSS POSTING.
(YES, I'M SHOUTING)
I apologize for making your life miserable. SOMEONE
HAS TO TELL PEOPLE THAT THIS IDIOT IS DANGEROUS!
YOU AREN'T! YES, I'M SHOUTING!
99.99% of the people that read these newsgroups already know this.
100% of the people on these newsgroups are pathetic miserable
stinkin rotten lyin animal murderin punk thug coward active
acute chronic life-long incurable malignant maliciHOWES manic
depressive MENTAL CASES like yourself, deja.clueless:

"dejablues" <***@hotmail.com> wrote in message news:***@uni-berlin.de...

I recently rehomed one of my dogs that
submissively urinated, we tried for two
years to get him over it but nothing worked.
It is not a behavior I can live with.
Thanks for warning the clueless googlegroup noobs, though.
And THANK YOU for participating, deja.

HOWEDY deja.clueless, you pathetic miserable stinkin
rotten lyin animal murderin punk thug coward active
accute chronic life long incurable malignant maliciHOWES
MENTAL CASE,
J3rry H0we
You mean Jerry Howe, The Sincerely Incredibly Freakin Insanely
Simply Amazing, Majestic Grand Master Puppy, Child, Pussy,
Birdy, Goat, Ferret, Monkey, SpHOWES, And Horsey Wizard,
don't you, deja.clueless <{}: ~ ) >

HOWE COME you're such a paranoid psychopathic coward that
you're even AFRAID to mention the name of The Unmentionable
WON, deja? Oh, I know HOWE COME, it's on accHOWENTA
every time you post your ignorameHOWES idiocy, lies, abuse, and
INSANITY to The Sincerely Incredibly Freakin Insanely Simply
Amazing, Majestic Grand Master Puppy, Child, Pussy, Birdy, Goat,
Ferret, Monkey, SpHOWES, And Horsey Wizard's 100%
CONSISTENTLY NEARLY INSTANTLY SUCCESSFUL FREE
WWW Wits' End Training Method Manual Forums And Human
And Animal Behavior Forensic Sciences Research Laboratory, JERRY
HOWE comes up an posts YOUR OWN POSTED CASE HISTORY
of HURTIN INTIMDIATIN an MURDERIN innocent defenseless
dumb critters and EMBARRASSES YOU TO DEATH <{}: ~ ) >

BWEEEAAAHAAAHAAA~!~!~!
is one of the worst trolls on the internet and is apparently irrational
most of the time. J3rry has, however, produced the Wits End Dog Training
Manual, a document that offers an array of very workable
and fairly successful dog training methods.
That's a little understated, HOWEver, it's TRUE, as far as it goes.
That's not UNEXXPECTED, seein as HOWE cj is a bona-fide
SCIENTIST and enjoys working as a PROFESSIONAL DOG
TRAINER <{}: ~ ) >
I suspect that he wrote the manual before he went
over the deep end and into social pathology.
"WON man's meat...", eh, Cj??
His "manual' consists of material stolen from others.
CITES PLEASE, deja, you pathetic animal murderin mental case?
He didn't actually write it.
Nor did HE write YOUR OWN POSTED CASE HISTORYof
HURTIN INTIMDIATIN an MURDERIN innocent defenseless
dumb critters an LYIN abHOWET it <{}: ~ ) >

YOU DONE THAT YOURSELF.
DIDN'T YOU, deja <{}'; ~ ) >
It was removed from his website due to copyright infringement.
You're INSANE. AND you're a LIAR.
He no longer has a website.
Psssst? THESE ARE HIS WEBSITE, you pathetic maggot.

And here's YOU:

HOWEDY dejaclueless,
Hello, I'm brand new to the group,
Can't you say "HOWEDY, MENTAL CASE!", dejaclueless?
found it just tonight, but thank goodness!
INDEEDY~ she's in EXXXCELLENT company, AIN'T SHE, deja?
I've been reading some of the 3,000+ posts and it looks like there's
much good advice to be had here. So, if you will please,
cast an eye on my story and see what you think?
This oughta be PRECIHOWES.
We've had our puppy for 5 months. She's a six and a half month old
Yorkshire Terrier / Jack Russel mix, long-haired. We bought
her from a small pet store, very clean, and the owners seemed to
be more involved with the animals than just as business.
JUST LIKE HOWE dejaclueless done...
Can you post a pic of her? I'd love to see what this
particular mix looks like!
Probably looks alot like the dog you DUMPED AT THE
P-HOWEND on accHOWENT of you couldn't break her
SUBMISSIVE URINATION PROBLEM from ABUSING
HER, REMEMBER dejaclueless?:

"dejablues" <***@hotmail.com> wrote in message news:***@uni-berlin.de...

I recently rehomed one of my dogs that
submissively urinated, we tried for two
years to get him over it but nothing worked.
It is not a behavior I can live with.

=============

BWEEEEEEEEEEEEEAAHAHAHHAHAHAA!!!

YOU'RE A MENTAL CASE, deja.

Sat, Jul 23 2005 12:05 pm
Subject: Re: Ack! I've messed up already!

HOWEDY dejaclueless,
Because my husband is in my room. It's okay if he whines and then I
get up and take him out. But it's not okay if he
then whines for the next two hours after I put him back.
I'm not sure how to get him to stop doing that.
If you don't have the pup in the room with you, you're not
going to know when he gets up and starts moving around -
- a sign of impending urination or defecation. Your husband
doesn't like being in the same room with dogs?
My husband is not crazy about dogs. He doesn't mind them in the same
room, but doesn't want them keeping him awake. If I must be in the
same room as the puppy, I'm either going
to have to move my hubby out, or sleep downstairs with the puppy.
Sleep downstairs with the puppy. Having the puppy in the same
room with you at night is part of having a puppy.
Mustang Sally
BWEEEEEEEEEEEAAHAHAHHAHAAA!!!
And, nine weeks old is too young for a pup to hold it all night.
THAT SO, dejaclueless? THAT'S NOT HOWE The Amazing
Puppy Wizard's 100% CONSISTENTLY NEARLY INSTANTLY
SUCCESSFUL FREE WWW Wits' End Dog Trainng Method
Manual Students REPORT RIGHT HERE. Even bringmewater
has his 8 week old puppy holdin it for 8 HOWERS a nite
but ONLY since he let IT HOWETA the box, dejaclueless.
Taking him out very late (like midnight) and again very
early (5:00) am will help,
That so, dejaclueless? That didn't stop your own dog from
gettin THROWN HOWET and sent to the P-HOWEND
on accHOWENT of you couldn't HOWEsbreak IT:

"dejablues" <***@hotmail.com> wrote in message news:***@uni-berlin.de...

I recently rehomed one of my dogs that
submissively urinated, we tried for two
years to get him over it but nothing worked.
It is not a behavior I can live with.

=============

BWEEEEEEEEEEEEEAAHAHAHHAHAHAA!!!

YOU'RE A MENTAL CASE, deja.
along with having him sleep near someone who can wake and
hear him. It's been ages since we had a young puppy, but I remember
keeping my hand on his crate next to my bed and saying "shhh shhh shhh"
for what seemed like ages.
Yeah. THAT'S HOWE COME your dog submissively urinated
every time you went near it for two years till you GOT RID OF IT.

REMEMBER you clueless dog abusing mental case?
Pretty soon he'll figure out that "Hey, all the people are sleeping, and
thats no fun, I might as well sleep too".
OR he'll learn to keep you awake all nite and piss and
shit all over your HOWES like HOWE your own dog
DONE till YOU GOT RID OF IT:

From: Diane (***@wwdc.com)
Subject: biting and attention
Date: 1999/10/13

I hope I'm not being a pest,(I have at least one
question a week) but I've never owned a lab
before and I think my 8month old lab/shepherd
has severe problems.

This newsgroup made me realize she is normal.

Her major problem is biting but I'm told labs and
shepherds are both bad for that as puppies.

Tonight I went to answer the phone and she took
my arm and wouldn't let go. I had to hang up as
my arm still has puncture wounds.

Has anyone had this problem?

I think she gets upset that all my attention is not
on her anymore. (I do spend a lot of time with
her and everyone tells me that I spoil her too much)

She also bites when she needs to go outside.

Any suggestions?

----------------------

BWEEEEEEEEEEAAAHAHAHAHAHHAAA!!!

Subject: housebreaking good but now bad
Monday, December 06, 2004 10:15 PM
My 5 month old puppy was doing very well for a bit with
his housebreaking and now he seems to have forgotten everything he ever
learned. We will both not survive if we
have to start over.
What can I do as a quick refresher? I haven't changed the routine
at all, just take him out whenever he's at the door or every hour
even if he hasn't been at the door. He gets treats when he comes
in (after going potty only). What can I do? HELP! Thanks!
"dejablues" <***@hotmail.com> wrote in message news:***@uni-berlin.de...

I recently rehomed one of my dogs that
submissively urinated, we tried for two
years to get him over it but nothing worked.
It is not a behavior I can live with.
Hello Rich, I wasn't being rude to you, I was being rude
to dejaclueless who struggled for a year to housetrain her dogs, while
my puppies are housetrained by the time they
are 10-11 weeks old. That's it. No stress, no worries. I leave the house
whenever I want with no worries, while Suja can't
even freakin sleep because a dog she's had for YEARS is still
pissing all over her living room and isn't housetrained....
This is the dog who dragged her down the street and broke her or
dislocated her bones, and the dog she can't even trust for a minute in
the backyard, and the dog she has to get up at all hours of the night to
take outside because, even after years of ownership he is still peeing
all over her house...
BWAHAHAHAHAHAAAAA!!!!!
I'm usually quite rude to "regulars" usually fat ass women who
spend all day on the keyboard because they know how to yack
and gossip, and have zero clue on how to train dogs or deal with
so-called "problem" behaviors.
A. murder dogs
B. Get paid to murder dogs
C. Volunteer to murder dogs for free and act like they
are doing something good or people who make up
reasons to murder easily trainable dogs.
D. People who are apologists for dog murderers, or people who sit or
have sat their fat asses on the "Board" of a "Shelter" which gets paid
to murder dogs (Janet Boss,
Mustang Sally)
E. And some people are so despicable that I'm simply rude
to them at all times. (Lynn K.) I'm rude to the people who have no idea
what they are doing (shelly, suja, deja, malinda, cate, sally, etc...)
people who are only here to gossip. And gossip is fine, but it's when
these fat, stupid, bitter, brainless
cows try to overstep their bounds and try control what goes
on here, then they get the rudest treatment. Especially when
their own houses are in a shambles, dogwise.
Suja and shelly are the brainless and brainlesser twins. Laughable
does not even begin to describe them. If all they did was gossip and
chatter I'd have no problem with them and their dog stupidity.
But gossip is not all they do here. They try to keep people like you at
their level. They want you to be as stupid and pathetic and hopeless
as they are.
They want to prevent you from getting heelp. that's all.
this is michael reporting
live... http://dogtv.com
I've owned many dogs (when I had a yard!) and find them to be excellent
companions well worth a certain amount of
time and trouble. You don't seem to speak from any experience. No need
to be rude either.
We live in the suburbs and have an acre of land, but on a
busy road with no fence (and no plans or funds for a fence).
With a not-too-bright dog that took over a year to housetrain, it was
a constant vigil for the next pee or poo, which he would refuse to do
on a walk, btw. I know what you mean. It added a
lot of stress to my life.
I wish I could relate. Maybe that's my problem, fans, I can't
relate to people with dog problems? I am cursed with this unrelenting
brilliance, such that I can't so much as conceive
of what it must be like to be a dog owning moron I can't feel your
pain this is michael reporting live... http://dogtv.com
You want MOORE INSANITY LIES and ABUSE?

WE GOT PLENTY
BUT, giving you the benefit of the doubt, please provide a quote (an
original quote, not from one of Jerry Howe's heavily edited diatribes)
that shows a regular poster promoting or using an abusive form of
training. --Matt. Rocky's a Dog.
From: Rocky (***@sunada.com)
Subject: Re: Leg Humper
Date: 1999/09/14
By "sticking your knee up," I can only presume that you are suggesting
that the people knee the dog in the chest. If that's what you meant, just
say it, instead of beating around the
bush to avoid criticism from people like me. That kind of crap
has got to stop, and that's why I'm here, to help wean you guys
off of the abuse and into the proper methods of dealing with behavior
problems.
Jerry, I was appreciating your explanation
up until this last paragraph.

Why did you blow it?

--Matt
When you compare using sound and praise to solve a
problem with using shock collars, hanging, and punishment how can you
criticize the use of sound?
There's nothing more to be said, then. You've made up your mind. But
you've impressed me by mentioning that you're a professor with
30 years of experience. So, can you cite some examples of people
recommending "shock collars, hanging, and punishment"? --
--Matt. Rocky's a Dog.
BWWWAWHAHAHAHAHAHAAA!!!
Jerome Bigge writes: I do know that hitting, hurting your dog will
often make the dog either aggressive or a fear biter, neither of which
we want to do.
And neither does anyone else, Jerome. No matter what Jerry Howe
states. --Matt. Rocky's a Dog.
"Just Want To Second Jerry's Method For
Dealing With This (Destructive Separation
Anxiety). I've Suggested It To Quite A Few
Clients Now And It's Worked 'EVERY TIME
The Very First Time' - marilyn, Trainer, 33
Years Experience.

You DO remember KILLFILING MARILYN for
her coment above regarding her success with
The Puppy Wizard's Surrogate Toy Separation
Anxiety / Bed Time Calming / Submissive
Urination Technique (STSA/BTC/SUT)?

Perhaps you likeWIZE recall a pediatrician, Dr. Z,
who commented that his bed time calming technique
was quite similar?
You're scary Marilyn. Marilyn must be quite a disturbed individual. I
feel very sorry for her and her family.
"His Amazing Progress Almost Makes Me Cry.
Your Method Takes Positive Training To The
Next Level And Should Really Be Used By All
Trainers Who Call Themselves Trainers. Thank
You For Helping Me Save His Life," Kay Pierce,
Professional Trainer, 30 Years Experience.
BUT, giving you the benefit of the doubt, please provide a quote (an
original quote, not from one of Jerry Howe's heavily edited diatribes)
that shows a regular poster promoting or using an abusive form of
training. --Matt. Rocky's a Dog.
BWWWWEAAAHAHAHAHAAAA!!!

Is that true, Marilyn?

Of course not~ but THIS IS:

"Chin CHUCK absolutely doesn't mean slap,"
professora gingold.

"Warning: Sometimes The Corrections Will
Seem Quite Harsh And Cause You To Cringe.
This Is A Normal Reaction The First Few Times
It Happens, But You'll Get Over It." mike duforth,
author: "Courteous Canine."

"I have heard advice stating that you should
pre-load your dog for Bitter Apple for it to work
as efficiently as possible. What does this mean?

When you bring home the Bitter Apple for the first
time, spray one squirt directly into the dog's mouth
and walk away. The dog won't be too thrilled with
this but just ignore him and continue your normal
behavior." --Mike Dufort author of the zero selling
book "Courteous Canines"
What I have said- repeatedly - is that he took posts from
two different people, took pieces of them out of context, cobbled them
"Neatly," and "Smartly."
and a fake signature.
"sinofabitch" instead of sionnach.
Which is exactly what he did.
The actual quote is misleading when taken out of context, and Jerry's
faked "quote" is downright meaningless.
Here's Jerry's version "I Dropped The Leash, Threw My
Right Arm Over The Lab's Shoulder, Grabbed Her Opposite Foot With My
Left Hand, Rolled Her On Her Side, Leaned On Her, Smartly Growled Into
Her Throat
And Said "GRRRR!" And Neatly Nipped Her Ear," sinofabitch.
Here's yours;
"I dropped the leash, threw my right arm over the Lab's
shoulder, grabbed her opposite foot with my left hand, rolled her on her
side, leaned on her, said "GRRRR!" and nipped her ear," --Sara Sionnach.
BWAHAHAHHAHAAAA!!!!!

That's INSANE. Ain't it.

"When you get bagged for lying you're MARKED
FOR LIFE," The Puppy Wizard's DADDY.

BWEEEEEEAAAHAHAHAHAHHAHAAAA!!!

From: Mark Shaw (***@bangnetcom.com)
Subject: Re: Fido-Shock
Date: 2002-04-10 14:12:18 PST
Has anyone had experience with this product (Fido-Shock).
If so, what model number, voltage, etc.?
If you're talking about the pet-grade hotwire system, I have
one. It's to keep boarded dogs out of my flowers.
I have a 1.5 year St Bernard who is scaling (not clearing --
more like falling over) our 4 foot fence to visit with owners
walking their dogs. I thought of raising the fence a foot or so, but
don't think that'll solve the problem.
I've tried watching her outside, and give a stern "NO" when
she props on the fence for a peek over it. No avail. I've heard
this product works after just a couple of tries.
I take it you're considering running the wire across the top
of the fence? I don't think I'd recommend that, although it
may be worth a try. Watch closely -- the one case where I saw
a hotwire used in this fashion caused the dog undue stress and
frustration, and he tried even harder to get over the fence.
So be prepared to take it down right away.

That was a Dane, though. With a Saint things might be
different.
--
Mark Shaw

culprit's dogs MURDERED her kat for
standin behind their SHOCK FENCE
just like HOWE liea's dog attacked
her only friend and tried to attack two
little kids for standin in her SHOCK ZONE:

From: culprit (***@flashmail.com)
Subject: Re: Video clip......."Nero" practicing bark alert,
while walking backwards
Date: 2004-06-05 18:53:50 PST
Anyway, contrary to your PR, this is what it felt like to me when I got
shocked by Hope's collar. It felt like a bomb going off in my hand and
forearm.
--------------------------------
how effective are these electronic fences in keeping
a dog on a property????
Some run through it. Others get shocked and become too scared to go out in
the yard anymore. Just heard of a guy that has to
rehome his dog, because the dog got caught right in the path of the shock
and will now not go near his person, won't go outside.
Just hides under a desk in the house.
Here's professor of ANAL-ytic behaviorISM research
at UofWI, marshall "SCRUFF SHAKE and SCREAM
"NO!" into ITS face for five seconds and lock IT in a
box for ten minutes contemplation," dermer:

"At this point, "No" does not have any behavioral function.
But, if you say "No,"pick up the puppy by its neck and
shake it a bit, and the frequency of the biting decreases
then you will have achieved too things.

First, the frequency of unwanted chewing has decreased;
and two, you have established "No" as a conditioned punisher.

How much neck pulling and shaking? Just the
minimum necessary to decrease the unwanted
biting.

**********IS THAT A CONSISTENT 5 SECONDS?************

When our dog was a puppy, "No" came before mild
forms of punishment (I would hold my dog's mouth
closed for a few seconds.) whereas "Bad Dog" came
before stronger punishement (the kind discussed above).

"No" is usually sufficient but sometimes I use "Bad Dog"
to stop a behavior. "Bad Dog" ALWAYS works," marshall
dermer, research professor of ANAL-ytic behaviorISM at
UofWI. For MOORE animal abuse, please visit dr p.

BWAHAHAHHAHAAAA!!!!!

That's INSANE. Ain't it.

The Amazing Puppy Wizard. <{}TPW ; ~ } >

P.S. Contacting Dr. P:

Please note that due to the large number of
requests I receive, I can no longer give free,
personal advice on problems related to dog
training and behavior.

In order for me to give such advice we would
have to "talk" about the problem at length.

That is, I would need detailed information about
the dog, it's environment and routine, the problem,
and the situation in which the problem occurs.

Thus, this type of consultation takes time which
I cannot afford to give away for free.

If you wish such advice, please see the information
I have provided about my K9 Behavioral Consulting
practice. Another alternative to obtaining personal
advice is to participate in e-mail, chat room, &
newsgroup discussions.

P.P.S. BWEEEEEEEAHAHAHAHAHAHAHHAAA!!!

YOU'RE FRAUDS, drs p. and dermer!

Either DEFEND your LIES, ABUSE And
Degrees or get the heel HOWETA THIS
BUSINESS.

"If you talk with the animals, they will talk with you
and you will know each other.
If you do not talk to them, you will not know them,
and what you do not know you will fear.

What one fears, one destroys."
Chief Dan George

"(Also, it is best to killfile posts from the
few regulars here who are either ill-
tempered, ill-mannered, or just plain ill.),"
--Marshall
Subject: God Bless The Puppy Wizard
Dear Mr. Puppy Wizard,
I have, of late, come to recognize your genius and now must applaud your
attempts to save animals from painful training
procedures.
You are indeed a hero, a man of exceptional talent, who tirelessly
devotes his days to crafting posts to alert the world to animal abuse.
We are lucky to have you, and more people should come to their
senses and support your valuable work.
Have you thought of establishing a nonprofit charity to fund your
important work? Have you thought about holding a press conference
so others can learn of your highly worthwhile and significant work?
In closing, my only suggestion is that you try to keep your messages
short for most readers may refuse to read a long message even if it is
from the wise, heroic Puppy Wizard. I wish you well in your endeavors. -
-Marshall Dermer
Marshall Dermer/Associate Professor/ Behavior Analysis
Specialty/Department of Psychology/University of Wisconsin-
--------------------------------------

All truth passes through three stages.
First, it is ridiculed.
Second, it is violently opposed.
Third, it is accepted as being self-evident.
-Arthur Schopenhauer

"Thank you for fighting the fine fight--
even tho it's a hopeless task,
in this system of things.
As long as man is ruling man,
there will be animals (and humans!)
abused and neglected. :-(
Your student," Juanita.

"If you've got them by the balls their hearts
and minds will follow,"
John Wayne.

The Amazing Puppy Wizard. <{} ; ~ ) >

GOT MILK?
Human_And_Animal_Behaviour_Forensic_Sciences_Research_Laboratory
2008-09-07 03:46:43 UTC
BWEEEAAAHAAAHAAA~!~!~!

"Human_And_Animal_Behaviour_Forensic_Sciences_Research_Laboratory"
Post by Human_And_Animal_Behaviour_Forensic_Sciences_Research_Laboratory
HOWEDY deja.clueless, you pathetic miserable stinkin
rotten lyin animal murderin punk thug coward active
accute chronic life long incurable malignant maliciHOWES
MENTAL CASE,
Hi! My dog is at the vet being neutered.
Surgical sexual mutilation CAUSES life-long life heelth an
temperament problems often ending in MURDERIN your
ill trained ill behaved deathly ill dogs <{}: ~ ( >
I know they will have lots of advice for us when we pick him up but if
any of you have anything to add (especially
the stuff they often leave out), I'd appreciate it!
Like the risk of INFECTIONS and EMBOLYZMS?
IME with neutering pets, it was not a big deal.
Not for *you*, you pathetic miserable stinkin rotten lyin
animal murderin MENTAL CASE <{}: ~ ( >
They were neutered, they came home, stumbled around a
bit as the anesthetic wore off, and a few hours later it was like nothing
happened.
I recently rehomed one of my dogs that
submissively urinated, we tried for two
years to get him over it but nothing worked.
It is not a behavior I can live with.
------------------
THAT'S CAUSED BY SURGICAL SEXUAL MUTILATION <{}: ~ ( >
Was it done by laser or the old-fashioned way?
BWEEEAAAHAAAHAAA~!~!~!
STOP REPLYING TO THIS NUTCASE, ESPECIALLY
WITHOUT DELETING HIS SPEW.
AND STOP CROSS POSTING.
(YES, I'M SHOUTING)
I apologize for making your life miserable. SOMEONE
HAS TO TELL PEOPLE THAT THIS IDIOT IS DANGEROUS!
YOU AREN'T! YES, I'M SHOUTING!
99.99% of the people that read these newsgroups already know this.
100% of the people on these newsgroups are pathetic miserable
stinkin rotten lyin animal murderin punk thug coward active
acute chronic life-long incurable malignant maliciHOWES manic
I recently rehomed one of my dogs that
submissively urinated, we tried for two
years to get him over it but nothing worked.
It is not a behavior I can live with.
Thanks for warning the clueless googlegroup noobs, though.
And THANK YOU for participating, deja.
HOWEDY deja.clueless, you pathetic miserable stinkin
rotten lyin animal murderin punk thug coward active
accute chronic life long incurable malignant maliciHOWES
MENTAL CASE,
J3rry H0we
You mean Jerry Howe, The Sincerely Incredibly Freakin Insanely
Simply Amazing, Majestic Grand Master Puppy, Child, Pussy,
Birdy, Goat, Ferret, Monkey, SpHOWES, And Horsey Wizard,
don't you, deja.clueless <{}: ~ ) >
HOWE COME you're such a paranoid psychopathic coward that
you're even AFRAID to mention the name of The Unmentionable
WON, deja? Oh, I know HOWE COME, it's on accHOWENTA
every time you post your ignorameHOWES idiocy, lies, abuse, and
INSANITY to The Sincerely Incredibly Freakin Insanely Simply
Amazing, Majestic Grand Master Puppy, Child, Pussy, Birdy, Goat,
Ferret, Monkey, SpHOWES, And Horsey Wizard's 100%
CONSISTENTLY NEARLY INSTANTLY SUCCESSFUL FREE
WWW Wits' End Training Method Manual Forums And Human
And Animal Behavior Forensic Sciences Research Laboratory, JERRY
HOWE comes up an posts YOUR OWN POSTED CASE HISTORY
of HURTIN INTIMDIATIN an MURDERIN innocent defenseless
dumb critters and EMBARRASSES YOU TO DEATH <{}: ~ ) >
BWEEEAAAHAAAHAAA~!~!~!
is one of the worst trolls on the internet and is apparently irrational
most of the time. J3rry has, however, produced the Wits End Dog
Training Manual, a document that offers an array of very workable
and fairly successful dog training methods.
That's a little understated, HOWEver, it's TRUE, as far as it goes.
That's not UNEXXPECTED, seein as HOWE cj is a bona-fide
SCIENTIST and enjoys working as a PROFESSIONAL DOG
TRAINER <{}: ~ ) >
I suspect that he wrote the manual before he went
over the deep end and into social pathology.
"WON man's meat...", eh, Cj??
His "manual' consists of material stolen from others.
CITES PLEASE, deja, you pathetic animal murderin mental case?
He didn't actually write it.
Nor did HE write YOUR OWN POSTED CASE HISTORYof
HURTIN INTIMDIATIN an MURDERIN innocent defenseless
dumb critters an LYIN abHOWET it <{}: ~ ) >
YOU DONE THAT YOURSELF.
DIDN'T YOU, deja <{}'; ~ ) >
It was removed from his website due to copyright infringement.
You're INSANE. AND you're a LIAR.
He no longer has a website.
Psssst? THESE ARE HIS WEBSITE, you pathetic maggot.
HOWEDY dejaclueless,
Hello, I'm brand new to the group,
Can't you say "HOWEDY, MENTAL CASE!", dejaclueless?
found it just tonight, but thank goodness!
INDEEDY~ she's in EXXXCELLENT company, AIN'T SHE, deja?
I've been reading some of the 3,000+ posts and it looks like there's
much good advice to be had here. So, if you will please,
cast an eye on my story and see what you think?
This oughta be PRECIHOWES.
We've had our puppy for 5 months. She's a six and a half month old
Yorkshire Terrier / Jack Russel mix, long-haired. We bought
her from a small pet store, very clean, and the owners seemed to
be more involved with the animals than just as business.
JUST LIKE HOWE dejaclueless done...
Can you post a pic of her? I'd love to see what this
particular mix looks like!
Probably looks alot like the dog you DUMPED AT THE
P-HOWEND on accHOWENT of you couldn't break her
SUBMISSIVE URINATION PROBLEM from ABUSING
I recently rehomed one of my dogs that
submissively urinated, we tried for two
years to get him over it but nothing worked.
It is not a behavior I can live with.
=============
BWEEEEEEEEEEEEEAAHAHAHHAHAHAA!!!
YOU'RE A MENTAL CASE, deja.
Sat, Jul 23 2005 12:05 pm
Subject: Re: Ack! I've messed up already!
HOWEDY dejaclueless,
Because my husband is in my room. It's okay if he whines and then
I get up and take him out. But it's not okay if he
then whines for the next two hours after I put him back.
I'm not sure how to get him to stop doing that.
If you don't have the pup in the room with you, you're not
going to know when he gets up and starts moving around -
- a sign of impending urination or defecation. Your husband
doesn't like being in the same room with dogs?
My husband is not crazy about dogs. He doesn't mind them in the same
room, but doesn't want them keeping him awake. If I must be in the
same room as the puppy, I'm either going
to have to move my hubby out, or sleep downstairs with the puppy.
Sleep downstairs with the puppy. Having the puppy in the same
room with you at night is part of having a puppy.
Mustang Sally
BWEEEEEEEEEEEAAHAHAHHAHAAA!!!
And, nine weeks old is too young for a pup to hold it all night.
THAT SO, dejaclueless? THAT'S NOT HOWE The Amazing
Puppy Wizard's 100% CONSISTENTLY NEARLY INSTANTLY
SUCCESSFUL FREE WWW Wits' End Dog Trainng Method
Manual Students REPORT RIGHT HERE. Even bringmewater
has his 8 week old puppy holdin it for 8 HOWERS a nite
but ONLY since he let IT HOWETA the box, dejaclueless.
Taking him out very late (like midnight) and again very
early (5:00) am will help,
That so, dejaclueless? That didn't stop your own dog from
gettin THROWN HOWET and sent to the P-HOWEND
I recently rehomed one of my dogs that
submissively urinated, we tried for two
years to get him over it but nothing worked.
It is not a behavior I can live with.
=============
BWEEEEEEEEEEEEEAAHAHAHHAHAHAA!!!
YOU'RE A MENTAL CASE, deja.
along with having him sleep near someone who can wake and
hear him. It's been ages since we had a young puppy, but I remember
keeping my hand on his crate next to my bed and saying "shhh shhh shhh"
for what seemed like ages.
Yeah. THAT'S HOWE COME your dog submissively urinated
every time you went near it for two years till you GOT RID OF IT.
REMEMBER you clueless dog abusing mental case?
Pretty soon he'll figure out that "Hey, all the people are sleeping, and
thats no fun, I might as well sleep too".
OR he'll learn to keep you awake all nite and piss and
shit all over your HOWES like HOWE your own dog
Subject: biting and attention
Date: 1999/10/13
I hope I'm not being a pest,(I have at least one
question a week) but I've never owned a lab
before and I think my 8month old lab/shepherd
has severe problems.
This newsgroup made me realize she is normal.
Her major problem is biting but I'm told labs and
shepherds are both bad for that as puppies.
Tonight I went to answer the phone and she took
my arm and wouldn't let go. I had to hang up as
my arm still has puncture wounds.
Has anyone had this problem?
I think she gets upset that all my attention is not
on her anymore. (I do spend a lot of time with
her and everyone tells me that I spoil her too much)
She also bites when she needs to go outside.
Any suggestions?
----------------------
BWEEEEEEEEEEAAAHAHAHAHAHHAAA!!!
Subject: housebreaking good but now bad
Monday, December 06, 2004 10:15 PM
My 5 month old puppy was doing very well for a bit with
his housebreaking and now he seems to have forgotten everything he ever
learned. We will both not survive if we
have to start over.
What can I do as a quick refresher? I haven't changed the routine
at all, just take him out whenever he's at the door or every hour
even if he hasn't been at the door. He gets treats when he comes
in (after going potty only). What can I do? HELP! Thanks!
I recently rehomed one of my dogs that
submissively urinated, we tried for two
years to get him over it but nothing worked.
It is not a behavior I can live with.
Hello Rich, I wasn't being rude to you, I was being rude
to dejaclueless who struggled for a year to housetrain her dogs, while
my puppies are housetrained by the time they
are 10-11 weeks old. That's it. No stress, no worries. I leave the
house whenever I want with no worries, while Suja can't
even freakin sleep because a dog she's had for YEARS is still
pissing all over her living room and isn't housetrained....
This is the dog who dragged her down the street and broke her or
dislocated her bones, and the dog she can't even trust for a minute in
the backyard, and the dog she has to get up at all hours of the night
to take outside because, even after years of ownership he is still
peeing all over her house...
BWAHAHAHAHAHAAAAA!!!!!
I'm usually quite rude to "regulars" usually fat ass women who
spend all day on the keyboard because they know how to yack
and gossip, and have zero clue on how to train dogs or deal with
so-called "problem" behaviors.
A. murder dogs
B. Get paid to murder dogs
C. Volunteer to murder dogs for free and act like they
are doing something good or people who make up
reasons to murder easily trainable dogs.
D. People who are apologists for dog murderers, or people who sit or
have sat their fat asses on the "Board" of a "Shelter" which gets paid
to murder dogs (Janet Boss,
Mustang Sally)
E. And some people are so despicable that I'm simply rude
to them at all times. (Lynn K.) I'm rude to the people who have no idea
what they are doing (shelly, suja, deja, malinda, cate, sally, etc...)
people who are only here to gossip. And gossip is fine, but it's when
these fat, stupid, bitter, brainless
cows try to overstep their bounds and try control what goes
on here, then they get the rudest treatment. Especially when
their own houses are in a shambles, dogwise.
Suja and shelly are the brainless and brainlesser twins. Laughable
does not even begin to describe them. If all they did was gossip and
chatter I'd have no problem with them and their dog stupidity.
But gossip is not all they do here. They try to keep people like you at
their level. They want you to be as stupid and pathetic and hopeless
as they are.
They want to prevent you from getting heelp. that's all.
this is michael reporting
live... http://dogtv.com
I've owned many dogs (when I had a yard!) and find them to be
excellent companions well worth a certain amount of
time and trouble. You don't seem to speak from any experience. No need
to be rude either.
We live in the suburbs and have an acre of land, but on a
busy road with no fence (and no plans or funds for a fence).
With a not-too-bright dog that took over a year to housetrain, it
was a constant vigil for the next pee or poo, which he would refuse
to do on a walk, btw. I know what you mean. It added a
lot of stress to my life.
I wish I could relate. Maybe that's my problem, fans, I can't
relate to people with dog problems? I am cursed with this unrelenting
brilliance, such that I can't so much as conceive
of what it must be like to be a dog owning moron I can't feel your
pain this is michael reporting live... http://dogtv.com
You want MOORE INSANITY LIES and ABUSE?
WE GOT PLENTY
BUT, giving you the benefit of the doubt, please provide a quote (an
original quote, not from one of Jerry Howe's heavily edited diatribes)
that shows a regular poster promoting or using an abusive form of
training. --Matt. Rocky's a Dog.
Subject: Re: Leg Humper
Date: 1999/09/14
By "sticking your knee up," I can only presume that you are suggesting
that the people knee the dog in the chest. If that's what you meant, just
say it, instead of beating around the
bush to avoid criticism from people like me. That kind of crap
has got to stop, and that's why I'm here, to help wean you guys
off of the abuse and into the proper methods of dealing with behavior
problems.
Jerry, I was appreciating your explanation
up until this last paragraph.
Why did you blow it?
--Matt
When you compare using sound and praise to solve a
problem with using shock collars, hanging, and punishment how can you
criticize the use of sound?
There's nothing more to be said, then. You've made up your mind. But
you've impressed me by mentioning that you're a professor with
30 years of experience. So, can you cite some examples of people
recommending "shock collars, hanging, and punishment"? --
--Matt. Rocky's a Dog.
BWWWAWHAHAHAHAHAHAAA!!!
Jerome Bigge writes: I do know that hitting, hurting your dog will
often make the dog either aggressive or a fear biter, neither of
which we want to do.
And neither does anyone else, Jerome. No matter what Jerry Howe
states. --Matt. Rocky's a Dog.
"Just Want To Second Jerry's Method For
Dealing With This (Destructive Separation
Anxiety). I've Suggested It To Quite A Few
Clients Now And It's Worked 'EVERY TIME
The Very First Time' - marilyn, Trainer, 33
Years Experience.
You DO remember KILLFILING MARILYN for
her coment above regarding her success with
The Puppy Wizard's Surrogate Toy Separation
Anxiety / Bed Time Calming / Submissive
Urination Technique (STSA/BTC/SUT)?
Perhaps you likeWIZE recall a pediatrician, Dr. Z,
who commented that his bed time calming technique
was quite similar?
You're scary Marilyn. Marilyn must be quite a disturbed individual. I
feel very sorry for her and her family.
"His Amazing Progress Almost Makes Me Cry.
Your Method Takes Positive Training To The
Next Level And Should Really Be Used By All
Trainers Who Call Themselves Trainers. Thank
You For Helping Me Save His Life," Kay Pierce,
Professional Trainer, 30 Years Experience.
BUT, giving you the benefit of the doubt, please provide a quote (an
original quote, not from one of Jerry Howe's heavily edited diatribes)
that shows a regular poster promoting or using an abusive form of
training. --Matt. Rocky's a Dog.
BWWWWEAAAHAHAHAHAAAA!!!
Is that true, Marilyn?
"Chin CHUCK absolutely doesn't mean slap,"
professora gingold.
"Warning: Sometimes The Corrections Will
Seem Quite Harsh And Cause You To Cringe.
This Is A Normal Reaction The First Few Times
It Happens, But You'll Get Over It." mike duforth,
author: "Courteous Canine."
"I have heard advice stating that you should
pre-load your dog for Bitter Apple for it to work
as efficiently as possible. What does this mean?
When you bring home the Bitter Apple for the first
time, spray one squirt directly into the dog's mouth
and walk away. The dog won't be too thrilled with
this but just ignore him and continue your normal
behavior." --Mike Dufort author of the zero selling
book "Courteous Canines"
What I have said- repeatedly - is that he took posts from
two different people, took pieces of them out of context, cobbled them
"Neatly," and "Smartly."
and a fake signature.
"sinofabitch" instead of sionnach.
Which is exactly what he did.
The actual quote is misleading when taken out of context, and Jerry's
faked "quote" is downright meaningless.
Here's Jerry's version "I Dropped The Leash, Threw My
Right Arm Over The Lab's Shoulder, Grabbed Her Opposite Foot With My
Left Hand, Rolled Her On Her Side, Leaned On Her, Smartly Growled Into
Her Throat
And Said "GRRRR!" And Neatly Nipped Her Ear," sinofabitch.
Here's yours;
"I dropped the leash, threw my right arm over the Lab's
shoulder, grabbed her opposite foot with my left hand, rolled her on
her side, leaned on her, said "GRRRR!" and nipped her ear," --Sara
Sionnach.
BWAHAHAHHAHAAAA!!!!!
That's INSANE. Ain't it.
"When you get bagged for lying you're MARKED
FOR LIFE," The Puppy Wizard's DADDY.
BWEEEEEEAAAHAHAHAHAHHAHAAAA!!!
Subject: Re: Fido-Shock
Date: 2002-04-10 14:12:18 PST
Has anyone had experience with this product (Fido-Shock).
If so, what model number, voltage, etc.?
If you're talking about the pet-grade hotwire system, I have
one. It's to keep boarded dogs out of my flowers.
I have a 1.5 year St Bernard who is scaling (not clearing --
more like falling over) our 4 foot fence to visit with owners
walking their dogs. I thought of raising the fence a foot or so, but
don't think that'll solve the problem.
I've tried watching her outside, and give a stern "NO" when
she props on the fence for a peek over it. No avail. I've heard
this product works after just a couple of tries.
I take it you're considering running the wire across the top
of the fence? I don't think I'd recommend that, although it
may be worth a try. Watch closely -- the one case where I saw
a hotwire used in this fashion caused the dog undue stress and
frustration, and he tried even harder to get over the fence.
So be prepared to take it down right away.
That was a Dane, though. With a Saint things might be
different.
--
Mark Shaw
culprit's dogs MURDERED her kat for
standin behind their SHOCK FENCE
just like HOWE liea's dog attacked
her only friend and tried to attack two
Subject: Re: Video clip......."Nero" practicing bark alert,
while walking backwards
Date: 2004-06-05 18:53:50 PST
Anyway, contrary to your PR, this is what it felt like to me when I got
shocked by Hope's collar. It felt like a bomb going off in my hand and
forearm.
--------------------------------
how effective are these electronic fences in keeping
a dog on a property????
Some run through it. Others get shocked and become too scared to go out
in the yard anymore. Just heard of a guy that has to
rehome his dog, because the dog got caught right in the path of the
shock and will now not go near his person, won't go outside.
Just hides under a desk in the house.
Here's professor of ANAL-ytic behaviorISM research
at UofWI, marshall "SCRUFF SHAKE and SCREAM
"NO!" into ITS face for five seconds and lock IT in a
"At this point, "No" does not have any behavioral function.
But, if you say "No,"pick up the puppy by its neck and
shake it a bit, and the frequency of the biting decreases
then you will have achieved too things.
First, the frequency of unwanted chewing has decreased;
and two, you have established "No" as a conditioned punisher.
How much neck pulling and shaking? Just the
minimum necessary to decrease the unwanted
biting.
**********IS THAT A CONSISTENT 5 SECONDS?************
When our dog was a puppy, "No" came before mild
forms of punishment (I would hold my dog's mouth
closed for a few seconds.) whereas "Bad Dog" came
before stronger punishement (the kind discussed above).
"No" is usually sufficient but sometimes I use "Bad Dog"
to stop a behavior. "Bad Dog" ALWAYS works," marshall
dermer, research professor of ANAL-ytic behaviorISM at
UofWI. For MOORE animal abuse, please visit dr p.
BWAHAHAHHAHAAAA!!!!!
That's INSANE. Ain't it.
The Amazing Puppy Wizard. <{}TPW ; ~ } >
Please note that due to the large number of
requests I receive, I can no longer give free,
personal advice on problems related to dog
training and behavior.
In order for me to give such advice we would
have to "talk" about the problem at length.
That is, I would need detailed information about
the dog, it's environment and routine, the problem,
and the situation in which the problem occurs.
Thus, this type of consultation takes time which
I cannot afford to give away for free.
If you wish such advice, please see the information
I have provided about my K9 Behavioral Consulting
practice. Another alternative to obtaining personal
advice is to participate in e-mail, chat room, &
newsgroup discussions.
P.P.S. BWEEEEEEEAHAHAHAHAHAHAHHAAA!!!
YOU'RE FRAUDS, drs p. and dermer!
Either DEFEND your LIES, ABUSE And
Degrees or get the heel HOWETA THIS
BUSINESS.
"If you talk with the animals, they will talk with you
and you will know each other.
If you do not talk to them, you will not know them,
and what you do not know you will fear.
What one fears, one destroys."
Chief Dan George
"(Also, it is best to killfile posts from the
few regulars here who are either ill-
tempered, ill-mannered, or just plain ill.),"
--Marshall
Subject: God Bless The Puppy Wizard
Dear Mr. Puppy Wizard,
I have, of late, come to recognize your genius and now must applaud your
attempts to save animals from painful training
procedures.
You are indeed a hero, a man of exceptional talent, who tirelessly
devotes his days to crafting posts to alert the world to animal abuse.
We are lucky to have you, and more people should come to their
senses and support your valuable work.
Have you thought of establishing a nonprofit charity to fund your
important work? Have you thought about holding a press conference
so others can learn of your highly worthwhile and significant work?
In closing, my only suggestion is that you try to keep your messages
short for most readers may refuse to read a long message even if it is
from the wise, heroic Puppy Wizard. I wish you well in your endeavors. -
-Marshall Dermer
Marshall Dermer/Associate Professor/ Behavior Analysis
Specialty/Department of Psychology/University of Wisconsin-
--------------------------------------
All truth passes through three stages.
First, it is ridiculed.
Second, it is violently opposed.
Third, it is accepted as being self-evident.
-Arthur Schopenhauer
"Thank you for fighting the fine fight--
even tho it's a hopeless task,
in this system of things.
As long as man is ruling man,
there will be animals (and humans!)
abused and neglected. :-(
Your student," Juanita.
"If you've got them by the balls their hearts
and minds will follow,"
John Wayne.
The Amazing Puppy Wizard. <{} ; ~ ) >
GOT MILK?